Question answer

How to distinguish an edible mushroom from an inedible one: what is the difference between poisonous and ordinary

How to distinguish an edible mushroom from an inedible one: what is the difference between poisonous and ordinary

Mushrooms are a tasty and he althy product that can add variety to the daily diet of people. Therefore, many people look forward to the onset of the mushroom picking season and make preparations for the winter from them. However, sometimes such products cause serious harm to the body and can even cause death. Therefore, it is so important to know how to distinguish an edible mushroom from an inedible one.

What are the benefits of edible mushrooms

Edible mushrooms are considered a valuable food item. They contain many valuable vitamins - groups B, A, C, PP.They also contain important minerals - potassium, iron, sodium, sulfur and others. In addition, the product is rich in protein. This component makes up 65-70% of the total.

The calorie content of the product is different - it depends on the type. 100 grams of fresh mushrooms contain 6-35 kilocalories. This allows them to be included in the diet.

The useful properties of mushrooms are difficult to overestimate. With regular use of this product, the following can be achieved:

  1. Deal with chronic inflammation and neutralize free radicals. This is due to the high content of antioxidants.
  2. Reduce blood cholesterol levels. This effect is achieved due to the presence of beta-glucans in the composition.
  3. Reduce blood pressure. The product contains a lot of potassium, which helps to relax the muscle walls of blood vessels. Due to this, it is possible to cope with hypertension.

Main differences

Depending on the possibilities of use, all mushrooms are divided into several categories that differ from each other:

  1. Edible - it is permissible to eat without boiling.
  2. Conditionally edible - you need to pre-soak or cook for a long time.
  3. Inedible - resemble edible species, but contain poisons. The use of such varieties provokes poisoning and even leads to death.

To avoid dangerous complications, it is important to be able to distinguish between edible varieties. They are characterized by the following features:

  • there is a skirt on the leg;
  • there is a tubular layer under the cap;
  • there is a pleasant aroma;
  • hats have a characteristic appearance and color - they differ depending on the variety;
  • Insects visible on the surface.

To recognize poisonous varieties, it is recommended to pay attention to the following signs:

  • are unusual or saturated in color;
  • some varieties have a sticky hat;
  • the leg changes color - an unnatural shade may appear on the cut;
  • there are no worms and insects on the surface or inside - they are not able to endure mushroom poison;
  • may have a bad smell - medicinal, fetid or chlorine;
  • there is no tubular layer under the cap.

To prevent the use of mushrooms from leading to serious he alth consequences, experts recommend following these rules:

  1. Study several common edible varieties growing nearby. Collect only those specimens that have characteristic features.
  2. Do not take mushrooms that cause at least the slightest doubt.
  3. In the absence of sufficient experience, tubular mushrooms should be preferred. These include boletus, boletus, boletus. They have a minimum of twins, which cannot be said about lamellar varieties.
  4. Don't try raw mushrooms. Their taste qualities will not give the required information. At the same time, the use of even a small piece of a poisonous variety leads to severe intoxication.
  5. In the identified family, you should first pay attention to large specimens. They are characterized by the most obvious signs. This will make it easier to identify the variety.

Most common mushrooms

In order to properly pick mushrooms, it is important to become familiar with their most common varieties.

Popular edible species

In order not to collect poisonous mushrooms, you need to study the main signs of edible ones. The most common varieties include the following:

  1. Cep mushroom - it is also called boletus. This species is very popular. This is due to the high nutritional properties and pleasant aroma. The product can be boiled, fried, dried or s alted. This variety is characterized by a thick light leg and a large tubular hat with a diameter of 20 centimeters. It can be brown, red or brown.
  2. Ryzhik is a nutritious and high-calorie variety that can be pickled and s alted. Its main feature is considered to be a bright orange color. Moreover, this shade is characteristic of all fragments - caps, legs, pulp. The lamellar hat is distinguished by a recess in the center. In this case, the ginger is characterized by a heterogeneous color. A rich orange tint is diluted with dark gray spots.
  3. The boletus is a very common variety that can be found near a cluster of birches. The product can be fried or boiled. This species is characterized by a light cylindrical leg, which is covered with dark scales.It is very fibrous to the touch. Inside is a dense light pulp. When cut, it acquires a slightly pinkish color. The cap is large in size and gray or brown-brown in color. At the bottom are white tubes.
  4. Aspen - this nutritious mushroom grows mainly in temperate zones. It is characterized by a thick leg, which expands downwards. It is covered with many small scales. The hat has a hemispherical shape, but becomes flatter with time. It may be red-brown or white-brown. When cut, the inner flesh changes color, becoming blue, red or black-violet.
  5. Butterer - small in size and ideal for marinating. Butterfish are dominant in the northern hemisphere. They have a smooth or fibrous cap, which is covered with a mucous film on top. The leg is predominantly smooth. Sometimes she has a ring. Before cooking, butter needs to be cleaned.However, the skin usually peels off easily.

What are inedibles

Dangerous mushrooms that are strictly forbidden to eat include the following:

  1. Pale grebe - considered the most dangerous species. However, it differs in very characteristic features. The pale grebe has a skirt under the hat. At the same time, the leg at the base is, as it were, inserted into the cup.
  2. Smelly fly agaric - resembles a pale grebe. It is characterized by a light yellow color and a conical hat. When broken, the mushroom exudes an unpleasant odor.
  3. Patouillard fiber is a very poisonous mushroom. Young specimens have whitish hats. However, as they grow, they straighten and turn yellow and then red.
  4. Waxy talker - is a beautiful porcini mushroom that has a pleasant taste and aroma. Plates are considered its characteristic feature. They are at the bottom of the hat and smoothly pass to the leg.

Mushrooms growing in Russia

Before picking mushrooms, it is important to familiarize yourself with the varieties that prevail in Russia. Among the poisonous varieties, it is worth highlighting the following:

  1. Pale grebe - has a yellow-brown or light green cap color. Usually in the central part it has a darker shade than at the edges. Mushrooms are distinguished by a fleshy structure and pale green cylindrical stripes. On top of the leg is a white or striped-pale ring.
  2. False honey agaric - different convex hat, which reaches 5 centimeters in diameter. It predominantly has a yellowish color with a red or orange tint. In the central part, the hat has a darker color. The mushroom has a smooth and thin stem. Inside is a light yellow flesh that tastes bitter and smells bad.
  3. Chanterelle false - has an orange-red tint. The hat resembles a funnel with smooth edges. At the same time, the plates have a bright red hue and a sinuous structure. The leg reaches 10 centimeters in length and 10 millimeters in width. It often narrows towards the base.

Edible mushrooms must be able to distinguish from inedible ones. These varieties are characterized by unique features. They should definitely be taken into account during the collection. This will help protect your he alth from negative consequences.

This page in other languages: