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Spruce root system: description and dimensions, growth scheme, transplant rules

Spruce root system: description and dimensions, growth scheme, transplant rules
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Growing trees in summer cottages is required by the rules. In this case, special attention should be paid to the structure of the root system. This helps to avoid a number of unpleasant problems - for example, damage to the foundation by overgrown elements. The spruce root system is characterized by a number of features. They must be taken into account when choosing a place for culture.

Growth Features

Under natural conditions, spruce is characterized by rapid development. Depending on the variety, the plant can increase by 20-40 centimeters in height. In the first 10-15 years, blue and other types of spruces are characterized by a tap root system.Then the main root dies, after which only the superficial ones remain.

Trees that grow on the slopes of mountain rivers or in open areas adapt to the environment. To maintain integrity, cultures form a very strong root system. Such trees are not afraid of the strongest gusts of wind. Spruces that grow in dense forests and have a large crown are more exposed to wind. Felling such trees is much easier.

Root development

Not every person knows what features are characteristic of the spruce root system. This culture is distinguished by a pronounced surface structure of the roots. Approximately 85.5% of the elements are located 1-9 centimeters from the surface of the earth. Roots are predominantly distributed horizontally and densely intertwined with each other, forming a powerful network.

The number of roots at a depth of 9-30 centimeters is reduced by almost 6 times.At a depth of 30-50 centimeters, only 2% of the roots are present. An even smaller number of elements is available in compacted places. Here, the roots mainly spread through the tubes of rotten roots and through the passages of the animals that live in these places. In general, the root system of spruces penetrates to a depth of 165 centimeters.

In the topmost soil layer, the conditions for the development of the root system are considered the most favorable. In the upper soil structures at a depth of 5-7 centimeters, the root system is densely intertwined in different directions and is firmly connected to the ground and organic residues. This layer of horizontal roots can be easily separated from the mineral layer of the soil.

Vertical roots of spruce are characterized by poor development. Its roots develop more strongly in the upper layer of soil. This is due to the fact that they require proper aeration. Small spruce roots are the shortest. They do not contain hairs and are dark brown in color. At the same time, thin roots are always darker than thick ones.From above, spruce roots are covered with lamellar scales, which are easily peeled off.

If the plant does not encounter any interference in the process of development, its root system develops normally and reaches the size required to feed the crown. For an adult tree, this circle is about 4 meters. Thus, within this distance, it is better not to plant anything, so as not to create competition for the nutrition of crops. Loosening the soil near the tree is also extremely careful.

Varieties of spruce roots

Up to 5 years, the root system of spruce is distinguished by a rod structure. Then the roots grow, and their stem gradually atrophies. To be more precise, it changes its structure, being covered with a tree bark of the first order. Thus, from the age of 6, the root system acquires a fibrous type. In this case, vertical fragments fall into the soil to a depth of 1.5-1.6 meters.

The root system does not just develop horizontally, and begins to branch and intertwine strongly, forming a kind of tangle. It grows in breadth, but mainly grows inside the ball. In width, spruce roots grow throughout the life of the tree. By the age of 20, their radius can be 2 meters or even more.

Features of transplant

Planting spruce is important, taking into account the type of root system and its individual perception of the level of groundwater. It is worth remembering that cultures with superficial placement of roots perceive high water occurrence relatively tolerantly. The rod system does not withstand moisture well.

If water is near the surface of the root collar, almost all plants will suffer from wetting of the root system and its death will soon come. Spruce is characterized by superficial occurrence of roots, therefore only areas that are constantly flooded are not suitable for it.Additionally, it is worth providing a drainage layer consisting of crushed stone, sand and crushed bricks. Its thickness should be 15-20 centimeters.

Another problem during planting is the placement of trees near structures and buildings. The root system of crops planted next to each other should not strongly overlap each other, intertwine or grow together. It is important that plants do not compete for water and food. At the same time, during development, they should not encounter obstacles - communications and foundations.

If a plant has a superficial root system, it will not only suffer itself, but also harm buildings. To prevent this, you need to adhere to certain rules. It is recommended to plant the tree at least 5 meters from the wall of the building and 1.5 meters from the sewer pipe.

If it is necessary to transplant spruce, it is recommended to do the following:

  1. Mark the north side of the spruce trunk. This should be done with chalk or garden pitch.
  2. Dig around the spruce. The radius should not be less than the length of the largest roots. Experts advise to start digging at a distance of 30-40 centimeters from the trunk. If there are no roots at a depth of 15 centimeters, the circle can be narrowed. As a result, it is worth digging a hole half a meter in size. It is important to avoid damaging the roots whenever possible.
  3. Carefully pull the dug tree out of the hole. In this case, it is required to hold the roots.
  4. Place the dug-out plant in a pre-prepared piece of natural tissue of suitable size.
  5. The top of the soil selected in the digging process must be taken with you. It will be needed when planting a tree in a new place and will speed up its adaptation.
  6. Dig a hole 60-70 centimeters deep in the new area. In this case, the diameter of the recess should be 1 meter. After that, a drainage layer 15-20 centimeters thick should be placed at the bottom of the hole. It may consist of brick, sand or gravel.
  7. Set the seedling in the recess. In this case, it is recommended to take into account the location of the label. It needs to be placed in the same position as in the old place.
  8. Pour a solution of nutrient preparations for coniferous plants into the bottom of the recess.
  9. Plant a spruce and sprinkle the hole with the remains of the substrate taken from the original place.

When moving a tree to a new place, its root system must be wrapped in a damp dense cloth. At the same time, it is important to ensure that a lot of soil is preserved on the roots of spruce. When planting a crop in a new place, it is worth monitoring that there are no other plants nearby with a three-meter spruce within a radius of at least 3 meters.

The root system of spruce is distinguished by certain features. They certainly need to be taken into account when planting a crop or moving it to a new site. Only in this case it will be possible to get a strong and he althy plant with excellent decorative properties.

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