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Crimean pine: description, planting and care, growing features

Crimean pine: description, planting and care, growing features
Anonim

Crimean pine is a fairly popular plant that has excellent decorative properties. The culture was named after the English academician Peter Pallas. It was he who brought the seeds of the plant to England in the seventies of the last century and received a cultivated form. The culture is listed in the Red Book, therefore it cannot be cut down.

What kind is this

According to the botanical description, this tree belongs to the genus Pine. Its specific name is Pinus nigra, and its subspecies is Crimean or Pallas.

Appearance

Crimean pine is a tall conifer that reaches a height of 30-40 meters. In this case, the maximum figure is 45 meters. Young trees are characterized by a pyramidal crown, which is quite wide. In older plants, it differs in an umbrella shape.

Crimean pine of the Fiolent variety and other varieties are characterized by a horizontal arrangement of branches. At the same time, they are slightly bent upwards. The trunk is covered with dark bark. It can be brown or almost black. From above, the trunk is covered with cracks or deep furrows and has a reddish color. At the same time, young branches are distinguished by a shiny yellow-brown surface.

The plant has long dark green needles. The needles are dense and prickly. They are slightly curved. The length of the needles is 8-12 centimeters, and the width does not exceed 2 millimeters. The kidneys are quite large and covered with straight scales.

Cones are arranged horizontally. They are placed on the branches singly or immediately after several pieces. The cones are brown in color and shiny. They differ in ovoid or conical shape. The length of the fruit is 5-10 centimeters, and the diameter is 5-6. Young shields have a blue-violet tint, while mature shields are brown-yellow.

Seeds reach a length of 5-7 millimeters. They are gray or almost black. Seeds are characterized by wings of a light color and a sail-like shape. The life expectancy of the Crimean pine is 500-600 years.

Growth area

Under natural conditions Pallas pine grows in the Crimea and the Caucasus. Culture is able to develop in limestone soil. It grows well in conditions of lack of moisture and can withstand strong winds. The plant is able to withstand temperatures as low as -25 degrees.

In temperate climates, young trees often freeze to death. Therefore, in culture, the Crimean pine is usually grown only in the southern regions of the European part of Russia. It can also be planted in the Moscow region and in the Central strip.

Planting instructions

Crimean pine, like the Caucasian one, requires compliance with certain instructions for planting.

Seedling selection

For growing pine in garden plots and parks, young seedlings should be preferred. In order for the tree to adapt better, it should not be older than 5 years. In order for the plant to endure the harsh climate of the middle zone, it is worth choosing seedlings no younger than three years old.

You can buy a plant in any Crimean nursery. Quality seedlings are sold in a container with a closed root system. Shoots on a young plant should be flexible enough. They must be free of mold, stains, or other signs of disease.

Soil preparation

For planting a plant in the country, preference should be given to places with deep groundwater. It is best to plant the plant in light sandy and sandy soil.Otherwise, in the recess for planting, it is required to make a drainage layer 20 centimeters thick. It may consist of expanded clay or river sand. Light soil should be used for backfilling. To reduce the acidity of the earth, chalk or dolomite flour should be added.

Culture is considered to be very photophilous. It is characterized by slow growth and hardly withstands a transplant in adulthood. This must be taken into account when choosing a place for planting and a plot for a plant.

Step by step guide

To carry out landing work, you need to do the following:

  1. Choose a well-lit area that is protected from strong winds.
  2. Dig a hole for planting up to 1 meter in size. It is important to ensure that the root neck of the seedling is flush with the ground.
  3. To avoid stagnant moisture, it is recommended to make drainage. It may consist of sand and small stones.
  4. When planting several pine trees, you need to leave space between them. It is best to make a distance of at least 1.5-2 meters.

Tree care

In order for a tree to develop normally, a number of care rules must be followed. The plant should be fed, moistened, cut in time. Preparing for frost is important.

Water and fertilize

The crop is considered fairly drought tolerant. However, this only applies to mature trees. Young pines need moderate and regular watering. With enough moisture, seedlings quickly take root and grow green.

Moisturizing is carried out as the soil dries. In this case, it is necessary to take into account seasonal precipitation. Young conifers must be watered in autumn. It is recommended to do this 1 month before the onset of the first frost.Thanks to moisture-charging irrigation, it is possible to increase resistance to frost.

All evergreen conifers require less fertilization than deciduous crops. This is due to the fact that they do not shed their leaves and do not form fruits.

The main food of the pine is obtained by photosynthesis. Therefore, they must be provided with a sufficient amount of magnesium. It is this substance that takes part in this process.

Under natural conditions, Crimean pines grow in depleted soil. Therefore, they differ in rather slow growth. Top dressing stimulates the development of the plant. For this, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are added. In nature, there is always a shortage of them. The use of a mineral complex helps to stimulate the growth of a young crop and enhance its protective properties.

It is important to follow the dosage when adding nutrients:

  1. Nitrogen - make only when planting young plants. Adult seedlings do not need to be fed with this substance. For 1 square meter, it is worth using 20 grams of the substance.
  2. Phosphorus - this element for young plants is applied three times during the season. At the same time, 20 grams of the product should be used per 1 square meter. Adult crops are fertilized twice - in spring and summer. In this case, 50 grams of the product is applied per 1 square meter. The last time the substance is used no later than August.
  3. Potassium - young seedlings need to be fed 3 times during the season. At the same time, 20 grams of funds are applied per 1 square meter. Adult plants need 50 grams per 1 square meter. They are fed twice. Apply the product in spring and summer. It should be made no later than August.
  4. Magnesium - in spring, seedlings can be fed with dolomite flour. At the same time, 1 square meter costs 70 grams of the substance.

Mulching

To increase the permeability of the soil for air and moisture, the area near the trunk circle is loosened from time to time. This must be done after watering. Also, be sure to get rid of weeds.

After loosening, the soil should be covered with mulch. Thanks to this, it is possible to prevent the drying of the root system and freezing of the soil in winter. In the summer, this procedure prevents the risk of weeds. It is permissible to use sawdust, fallen leaves, peat soil as mulch. Conifer bark is also a good option.

Cutting

A coniferous plant of this species does not require a shaping haircut. At the same time, the Crimean pine needs sanitary pruning. This procedure should be carried out in the spring after wintering. In this case, it is necessary to remove broken and burned branches. If necessary, the manipulation is performed in the spring. In this case, it is required to remove diseased shoots. To stimulate the growth of the tree, you can pinch the shoots. To do this, remove a maximum of a quarter of their length.

Preparing for cold weather

A mature tree easily withstands harsh winters and does not require insulation.Young seedlings often suffer from frost. Therefore, before the arrival of cold weather, they need to be insulated with sawdust, fallen leaves or bark of conifers. It is recommended to cover the aerial part with roofing felt or spruce branches.

Methods of reproduction

Crimean pine can be propagated by seeds. They are small in size and have wings up to 2.5 centimeters long and up to 2 millimeters wide. Thanks to this, the seeds that have fallen out of the cones fly away from the tree and populate new territories. It is important to consider that attempts to propagate by layering, cuttings or grafting a tree do not work.

Possible diseases

If the rules of agricultural technology are violated, the probability of infection of the Crimean pine with diseases increases. Most often, she suffers from such pathologies:

  • cancer;
  • rust;
  • stem and root rot.

To avoid the development of diseases, it is important to properly care for the seedling and treat it with fungicidal biological products.

Also, the Crimean pine can suffer from insect attacks. For young plants, the May beetle is considered very dangerous, which can damage the roots of the tree. Therefore, before planting, you should carefully inspect the soil. If insect larvae are detected, the soil must be treated with chemicals.

Sick and young trees can suffer from bark beetle attacks. They make moves in the trunk, which provokes a nutritional deficiency and drying out of the tree. Drill flour on the trunk helps to identify pests. To prevent attacks of pine parasites, it is worth treating with bifenthrin-containing products.

Insects often cause damage to the needles. For example, caterpillars of pine silkworms during the period of their development are able to eat up to 700 needles. Such means as "Aktara", "Karate", "Engio" help to cope with them. Planting is required in spring and autumn.

Application

Crimean pine is distinguished by strong and heavy wood, which is resistant to cracking. The material perfectly withstands moisture. It is characterized by resistance to fungal infections and is very durable. Wood can be used as a raw material for the production of turpentine and rosin. It is used in furniture production and in construction. However, the material has not found wide application in industry, as it is listed in the Red Book.

Live trees are used to decorate streets and strengthen slopes. They are often used to create beautiful landscape compositions in summer cottages.

Young needles and cones of the Crimean pine are actively used in folk medicine. They make decoctions that help get rid of pathologies of the joints and organs of the respiratory system.

Pine pollen is considered an excellent natural biostimulant. It contains many B vitamins, ascorbic acid, antioxidants. The product is used to treat and prevent the following conditions:

  • anemia, physical and nervous exhaustion;
  • weakened immune system;
  • infections;
  • digestive disorders;
  • pathology of the heart and blood vessels;
  • blood pressure fluctuations;
  • increased blood cholesterol levels;
  • diabetes mellitus;
  • cancer;
  • pathology of the kidneys and liver.

Crimean pine is an attractive ornamental culture that fits perfectly into a variety of landscape compositions. In addition, it has pronounced medicinal properties. For pine cultivation to be successful, you should strictly follow the instructions and provide the culture with competent care.

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