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Types of pines: TOP 13 common, their names and characteristics

Types of pines: TOP 13 common, their names and characteristics

Pine is an evergreen coniferous tree, dwarf or shrub that belongs to the Pine family. This plant can live 100-600 years. It has excellent decorative properties and has a healing effect. This is due to the high popularity of culture. Today, there are many types of pines, each with its own characteristics.

Description of the pine tree

Pine most often grows as a bushy tree or creeping shrub. The shape of the crown of a culture can vary - from pyramidal to spherical. Shoots can be ordinary, long or shortened.The needles are distinguished by a trihedral or flat shape and form bundles of 2-5 pieces. They remain on the shoots for 3-6 years. The base of the bundles is surrounded by small scales.

Buds can be straight or drooping. Over time, they become woody. The seed scale has a thickened area at the end - the apophysis. It is complemented by a tubercle. Seeds may or may not have wings.

Popular varieties and types

Today, quite a lot of varieties of pines are known, each of which has its own characteristics.


This is a rather massive tree, which reaches a height of 47 meters and is distinguished by a diameter of 1.2 meters. The characteristic features of this species include spectacular yellow-green needles. Another feature of the culture is the high fire resistance of wood. The plant is found in southeastern North America.


This species is characterized by a height of up to 30 meters. It is distinguished by long needles of a gray-green color, which forms bunches of 5 pieces. The tree is also called white pine. It is predominantly found in western North America and Guatemala. In temperate climates, Montezuma pine can be grown as an ornamental crop. In addition, it is considered a source of delicious nuts.


This type of pine is considered the most common. It is found in Asia and Europe. The highest specimens can be seen near the B altic Sea. What height do they have? Such plants reach 40-50 meters. The straight trunk is covered with bluish-brown bark.

Scotch pine is characterized by sharp needles 8 centimeters long. Trees of this species have blue-green needles and a high degree of stiffness.Cones reach a length of 7 centimeters and are ovoid in shape. Inside are gray and black seeds. A young plant is distinguished by a cone-shaped shape, which expands and rounds over time. The flowering period is May and June.

Siberian Cedar (Siberian Cedar)

Siberian cedar pine is considered the closest relative of the common variety. The tree can reach a height of 40 meters. However, most often it does not exceed 20-25 meters. The culture is characterized by thick branches and a dense crown. The straight trunk is distinguished by a gray-brown color.

This plant has soft and long needles up to 14 centimeters in size. The needles are dark green in color and covered with a bluish bloom. Siberian cedar begins to bear fruit at the age of 60. During this period, large ovoid cones appear on the trees, which reach a length of 13 centimeters. At the initial stage of growth, they have a purple color, but as they mature, they turn brown.

Buds take 14-15 months to mature. However, they fall in September of the following year. 1 pine tree is capable of producing up to 12 kilograms of nuts during the season. This plant is often found in Western and Eastern Siberia.


This crop is a creeping shrub with one or more trunks. It has a gray-brown bark, which exfoliates in the form of plates. The culture is characterized by dense curved needles of a dark green color.

Buds grow singly or form bunches of 2-3 pieces. They are directed in different directions. Fruit ripening occurs in the spring of the third year. This culture is widespread in the center and south of Europe. It is also found in Russia.


In Latin, this culture is called Pinus albicaulis.An adult plant reaches a height of 21 meters. In this case, the diameter of the trunk is 1.5 meters. The crown changes its shape from conical to rounded. The branches are red-brown in color and covered with a glandular bundle. At the same time, the knots become grayish over time.

Whitebark pine needles form bunches of 5 pieces. The needles reach a length of 3-7 centimeters and live 5-8 years. It is distinguished by a yellow-green color and rounded edges. The peculiarities of the needles include a sweetish aroma and taste. The cones remain on the tree and do not open on their own. They are characterized by a spherical or ovoid shape. The length of the fruit reaches 4-8 centimeters. The color of the cones varies - from light gray to black-violet.


This culture is also called dwarf pine. It is a low bushy tree with widely spread branches. The crown can have a different shape - creeping, tree-like or cup-shaped.

Treelike plants reach a height of 4-5 meters. Sometimes they grow up to 7 meters. Creeping pines pressed to the ground. At the same time, their tips rise by 30-50 centimeters. The dwarf pine is distinguished by bluish-green needles 4-8 centimeters in size.

Pine is characterized by small ovoid or elongated cones. Nuts are small in size and reach a length of 9 millimeters. In a harvest year, up to 2 centners of nuts can be obtained from 1 hectare.

Pine elfin is considered an unpretentious culture that calmly endures the harsh northern climate. The plant has become widespread from Primorye to Kamchatka.


This is a tall culture that reaches 45 meters. It is predominantly found in the Crimea and the Caucasus. This plant has a significant life span, which can reach 600 years.

At the initial stage of development, the tree has a pyramidal crown. Subsequently, it changes its shape and becomes umbrella-shaped. The Crimean pine is characterized by prickly needles up to 12 centimeters in size. Also, the plant is distinguished by shiny oblong cones. The upper part of the trunk is covered with deep furrows. It should be borne in mind that this culture has excellent decorative properties.


This plant is found in the Annapurna mountains, in the Himalayas. It grows at an altitude of 1.8-3.76 kilometers above sea level. The tree has excellent decorative properties and reaches a height of 30-50 meters. It is characterized by a beautiful pyramidal crown, consisting of gray-green needles and elongated cones.


This pine is also called Italian. It has excellent decorative properties and reaches a height of 20-30 meters. The tree is characterized by a compact dark green crown, which, as the culture develops, takes the form of an umbrella. This is due to the presence of prostrate shoots.

Italian pine is characterized by long needles that reach 15 centimeters. She is quite elegant and quite dense. A small bluish bloom covers the top of the needle.

Pinia has large cones of almost rounded shape, the length of which reaches 15 centimeters. Seeds of this variety are 4 times superior to cedar. At the same time, up to 8 tons of nuts can be obtained from 1 hectare.

Because the Italian pine has a very beautiful crown shape, it is a valuable ornamental plant that is often used in the art of bonsai. Under natural conditions, this culture is found along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. It is also grown in the Crimea and the Caucasus.


This species has quite impressive dimensions and can reach a height of 20-55 meters. The life expectancy of such a tree is 600-800 years.The shape of the crown changes as the culture develops. At first, the tree has a pyramidal crown, and then it becomes umbrella-shaped.

The tree is characterized by black-gray bark, which is covered with deep grooves. Dark green needles reach a length of 8-14 centimeters and have a slight sheen or matte surface. Needles form bundles of 2 pieces. The needles have a solid structure and a slightly pointed shape. It can be straight or slightly curved. Buds may be round or slightly elongated. They reach a length of 5-7.5 centimeters.


This variety is also called white oriental. It has become widespread in northeastern North America and southeastern Canada. The tree has excellent decorative properties. It is characterized by a straight trunk with a diameter of 1.3-1.8 meters. In height, the culture can reach 67 centimeters.

Weymouth pine begins to bloom only at the age of ten. In young trees, the crown resembles a cone, but over time it acquires an irregularly rounded shape. The plant is covered with bark with a purple tint. The needles have a straight shape and reach a length of 10 centimeters.


This plant is an ecotype of the Scotch pine. It has become widespread in Siberia, in the area of the Angara river basin. The culture also occupies significant areas in the Irkutsk region and in the forests of the Krasnoyarsk Territory.

This plant can reach a height of 50 meters. The girth of the trunk is 2 meters. The culture has a pyramidal crown shape with a pointed crown. At the same time, the bark is distinguished by an unusual silver color.

How to plant a pine tree

It is recommended to plant a crop in early autumn or spring. When placing several crops on the site, it is important to monitor the distance between them. Large varieties are recommended to be planted 4 meters apart. For small plants, a spacing of 1.5 meters will suffice.

Before planting a pine, you need to choose a place for planting and determine the type of soil. The best option for the plant is sandy or sandy soil. When planting a crop in heavy soil, you need to take care of a high-quality drainage layer.

When planting a tree, you need to carefully spread the roots over an earthen coma. After that, the hole can be filled up. In this case, it is important to ensure that the root neck is on the same level with the surface of the earth. Then the seedling needs to be watered with warm water.

In order for the seedling to take root, it is important to water the plant well during the first day after transplanting. At the same time, at least 2-3 buckets of water should be poured under the tree. Then the seedling needs to be shaded, and the near-trunk circle should be covered with a mulch layer.

How to care for her

The plant does not need additional watering. This is only required for young plants. In order for the trees to take root better, they need to be fed during the first 2 years. For this, it is recommended to use mineral fertilizers. To avoid freezing, young plantings should be covered for the winter. Mature plants are pruned to remove dead shoots and form a crown.

Today, quite a lot of species of pines are known, each of which has certain characteristics. This allows each gardener to choose the most suitable option for growing on their site and ensure that the crop is fully cared for.

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