Planting an apple tree in spring and summer with seedlings in the Urals: when it's right, timing

Planting an apple tree in spring and summer with seedlings in the Urals: when it's right, timing

The weather in the Urals is unstable, especially in summer: winds, drought and heavy rains. In winter, frost threatens the orchard, summer does not please with an abundance of heat. Nevertheless, gardeners are successfully planting apple trees with seedlings in the Urals. Varieties bred for this region are as close as possible in their characteristics (frost resistance, adaptability to weather conditions) to wild-growing forms.

Choosing an apple variety for the Urals

Summer residents of the Urals should choose varieties of apple trees bred for their climatic zone. It is worth paying attention to the winter-hardy apple tree of the Papiroyantarnoe variety. The selection was carried out by L. A. Kotov (breeding station in Sverdlovsk), he crossed Papirovka and Yantar.

Summer variety, winter-hardy (up to -30 °C). An adult tree with a height of 6 to 7 m. The skeletal branches are strong, they go almost at a right angle from the trunk, forming a strong, rounded crown. Fruiting is regular. Fruit Options:

  • weight 150 g;
  • light yellow skin;
  • pulp (color) cream;
  • pulp (structure) fine-grained;
  • taste sweet and sour, score 4.4 points;
  • appointment universal.

Disadvantage: leaves, fruits are prone to scab if the summer is cold and damp.

Aksen's apple tree - another work by L. A. Kotov. The variety is late summer, ripens by mid-August, the shelf life of fruits is short. The yield of an adult tree is 18 kg. Fruits of medium size (90 g), round shape.The skin is creamy with a solid red blush. The pulp is dense, fine-grained, creamy, sweet and sour. Taste score 4.3.

Help! Raika variety is planted as a pollinator in the Urals.

From the autumn varieties of apple trees growing in the Urals, Sokovoe-3 deserves attention. The form was obtained from crossing the Ural Bulk with the Harvest apple tree. Fruit Options:

  • weight about 80 g, the largest specimens 120 g;
  • flat-round shape;
  • skin color cream, blush pink, striped mottled;
  • pulp color creamy, pulp texture granular, juice content high;
  • harmonious sweet and sour taste, score 4.5 points.

Fruiting from the 3rd year of life, the fruit ripening period is September (from 1 to 20). Apples are stored for 3-4 months. The yield of an adult tree is high (up to 100 kg). Advantages of Sokovoe-3: winter hardiness, resistance to scab pathogens.

Other varieties grown in the Urals are shown in the table.

YieldFruit (weight, g)Sverdlovsk blush 350180Spring300150Good News200From 80 to 100Screen25090Pervouralskoye360160-200Persian320145

Date of planting

Most of the Ural gardeners plant seedlings in the middle of spring. By the end of April, stable warm weather sets in, and the soil warms up. You need to plant before the buds open. Over the summer, the apple tree will get stronger and survive the first winter without any problems.

Early autumn is not planted, so as not to provoke the awakening of the kidneys. They are guided by weather forecasts and their long-term observations of the weather. It is necessary to have time to plant a seedling a month before severe frosts, it is optimal to plant an apple tree in early October.

Perfect soil for an apple tree

Planting an apple tree in the wrong soil causes diseases, irregular fruiting, and low yields. Not suitable for growing apple trees:

  • heavy ground;
  • soils with high acidity;
  • areas with high water tables.

Signs that characterize the ideal soil for an apple tree: structuredness, porosity, moisture capacity. pH level in the range from 5.1 to 7.5, carbonate index from 12 to 15%, humus - not less than 2%. In order for an apple tree to live a long life, groundwater must lie deeper than 1.5 m. Methods for improving the fertility of garden soil are shown in the table. Method

Pros ImplementationIntroduce organic matterThe apple tree receives nutrients in an easily digestible form Manure, sapropel, lowland peat, compost (vegetable)Sowing the site with green manureSoil structure improves, % of humus increases Mustard (white), phacelia, vetch, cloverMulchProtection of roots from overheating, hypothermia, creating favorable conditions for the development of soil microflora, maintaining optimal soil moisture, improving air conditions Lawn grass, chopped green manure, ready compost, composted peat

Simultaneous application of several methods accelerates humus accumulation in garden soil.

Rules for selecting seedlings

For planting, it is worth purchasing seedlings at the age of 2 years. The root system of a he althy tree is branched, at least 30 cm long, the length of the central shoot is at least 1.5 meters. The roots should not have growths, their color on the cut should be white.

A few shoots should emerge from the trunk of a 2-year-old seedling. They should be located at different levels and at different angles. There should be no mechanical damage on the trunk and branches. It is best to purchase a seedling with a closed root system.

How to plant an apple seedling?

3 weeks before planting the seedling, preparatory work begins. The preparation of the landing pit takes the most physical effort and time. It should be at least 80-90 cm in diameter and 70 cm deep.

In order for the seedling to receive proper nutrition after planting, they prepare the soil for backfilling, it should contain:

  • humus;
  • compost;
  • peat;
  • garden soil.

Everything is taken in equal shares. If the garden soil is clayey, then sand is added to the mixture. Before planting, fallen leaves and small branches can be poured into the bottom of the pit, overheating, they will nourish the apple tree as an organic fertilizer.

Help! Superphosphate is added to the backfill soil, it contributes to better rooting and development of the seedling.

A stake is hammered into the center of the pit, a mound of fertile soil is poured around it, on which a seedling is placed. The roots are straightened and evenly covered with soil. At the end of planting work, the root neck of the apple tree should be 5-7 cm above the ground.A root hole is formed, the soil is watered abundantly and covered with mulch (humus, peat). The trunk is tied to a peg in several places.

Preparing for winter

The stem is whitened, a chalk solution is used. Just before the frosts, the apple tree is watered abundantly, this increases its frost resistance. The trunk is protected from frost with old newspapers or burlap. The branches are wrapped with covering material. The trunk circle is thrown with spruce branches.

Simple activities help the seedling to overwinter. In the spring, before bud break, all covering materials and spruce branches are removed from the tree. The trunk circle is cleared, loosened. Further care for a young apple tree comes down to watering, fertilizing, disease prevention.

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