Flowers, herbs

Sparaxis: planting and care in the open field, types and varieties, subtleties of cultivation

Sparaxis: planting and care in the open field, types and varieties, subtleties of cultivation
Anonim

Herbaceous bulbous perennials are loved by all flower growers, such plants adorn plots for many years. Recently, the views traditional for our country have been supplemented by guests from overseas countries, who have exotic charm, special brightness and chic. Consider how to grow sparaxis in the open field - planting and care features, the necessary conditions under which a heat-loving flower will feel at home.

General description and characteristics of the sparaxis flower

Sparaxis represents the Iris family, belongs to the genus of corm plants. In nature, it is found only in southern Africa, where it blooms along the banks of reservoirs. One species (Sparaxis tricolor) was introduced in California.

In African conditions, sparaxis grows up to a meter, but transferred to our latitudes gives a peduncle 50-60 centimeters high. Sparaxis Specs:

  1. The rosette is made up of smooth, lanceolate, rich green foliage, like many irises.
  2. Corms.
  3. Dwarf species grow up to 15 centimeters, the rest - 50-60 centimeters.
  4. Flowers up to 5 centimeters in diameter. Star-shaped or funnel-shaped. Pistil pronounced, strongly protruding, 3 stigmas. The color of the petals in most with contrasting transitions.

The flowers are not large, but the pronounced color contrast makes blooming sparaxis the main decoration of any site. The petals are painted in 2-3 colors, the transitions seem to be drawn with clear lines. Color varied - yellow, orange, purple, white.

In conditions close to African, sparaxis blooms in spring and pleases with a riot of colors all summer. In the realities of the Middle Strip, with the need to remove the bulbs for the winter from the soil, flowering begins at the end of summer.

Types and varieties

The 4 most decorative types of sparaxis are used for breeding, the total number of varieties is greater. The breeders managed to create varieties with bright contrasting color combinations - from white to deep purple, the color of the perianths combines 3 colors.

The leaders in popularity are the following varieties:

  1. Bilbifera. The least whimsical of all sparaxis, with narrow petals of a white or lemon yellow hue. The petals are separated from each other, do not touch. In the group, openwork light compositions of a monochrome look are created. Diameter - 5 centimeters, height - up to 60 centimeters.
  2. Tricolor, tricolor. The flower growers' favorite combines 3 contrasting tones in the petals. Usually tricolor is sold in a mix with different petal colors. The peduncle bears 5-7 buds, which bloom in turn.
  3. Grandiflora. Remarkable in beauty, flowers with a bract that matches the tone of the petals have a pleasant aroma. On the peduncle - from 3 to 5 buds of white, purple or yellow color.
  4. Graceful. This species is dwarf, growing up to 15 centimeters. Especially popular is the orange color of the petals with a burgundy-purple center.

The varieties Sunny Day, Moonlight, Lord of Fire also enjoy the love of flower growers.

Pros and cons

The main advantage of sparaxis is the high decorativeness of group plantings. Flowers are planted tightly. The lanceolate greens in the lower part are connected, the flower stalks are strewn with bright heads of bizarre colors. Small flowers stand out clearly against the background of greenery. The details are drawn with precise strokes, no halftones or blurry spots. Bulbs remain viable for up to 3 years, but need proper storage.

A significant drawback of sparaxis is that the plant is exotic, and the conditions of most Russian regions are far from African. Flower growers have to create special conditions for the plant, as a result of which flowering moves to the end of summer.Only in the southernmost regions, the bulbs can overwinter in the soil, the beds still need to be mulched. You can grow sparaxis from seeds only in stationary greenhouses.

Subtleties of growing ornamental crops

For those who have mastered the planting and care of gladioli, tulips, irises, it is not difficult to master the agricultural technique of growing sparaxis. The closest relative of everyone's favorite crops are grown according to the same rules.

When and where to plant

For beds, choose sunlit places without shading, but closed from wind and drafts. Lowlands where water accumulates are not used. The bulb can get wet and rot with excess moisture. For drainage, a layer of expanded clay is used and sand is introduced into the soil mixture. When planting in loamy or sandy soils, dilute the soil with organic matter.

In Russia, the following planting dates for sparaxis are recommended:

  1. Southern regions where winter temperatures never fall below 0°. End of September, first half of October. The beds are mulched for the winter.
  2. Middle lane - end of April, mid-May.

When choosing dates, they are guided by the weather. Sustained heat and warm soil are the main conditions for growth. Bulbs planted in the cold will simply sit in the ground, with an excess of moisture, the roots will begin to rot.

Preparation of seedlings

Bulbs a few days before planting are taken out of storage and transferred to a warm place (25-27 °). Planting material is inspected, diseased specimens are discarded. Before planting, you can treat the bulbs with fungicides (Fundazol), growth stimulants (Kornevin) in accordance with the instructions.

How to plant

Sparaxis is planted in soil heated to 18 °, according to the following rules:

  • pre-winter sowing - with a depth of 8-10 centimeters;
  • spring planting - depth - 5-6 centimeters.

To create beautiful glades, flowers are planted tightly - at a distance of 8-15 centimeters from each other, depending on the size of the sparaxis bush.

Reference: sparaxis retains its decorative effect for 5-6 years, then the bulbs need to be renewed.

Sparaxis care

They care for the flower in the same way as for its iris relatives - water it, feed it. The aisles are loosened to provide air access, weeds and dead parts of the bushes are removed.

How to water and feed

Watering is carried out in accordance with weather conditions. In the rainy season, do not let the water stagnate. In case of drought, water 2-3 times a week, preferably in the evening. If it is cool at night, watering is transferred to the morning.At high temperatures, sprinkling is useful for sparaxis when there is no direct sun.

Feeding rules:

  • phosphorus-containing fertilizers - in early spring and after flowering in winter;
  • nitrogen - in spring for green growth;
  • potash - when budding.

During the season, it is recommended to add ash to the beds of sparaxis 2-3 times.

Wintering

To maintain the viability of the bulbs during the winter, late (after flowering is completed) top dressing of sparaxis with phosphorus-containing fertilizer is carried out. Further, the plants are no longer watered, they are allowed to dry in the soil.

Bulbs are dug up without cutting off the greens, soaked in a 2% solution of potassium permanganate for 24 hours. Then dry. This will disinfect the planting material, remove mold and rot particles. After waiting for the complete drying of the ground part, it is separated from the bulb.Planting material is stored at a temperature of 5-7 ° in sawdust in a dark room. Periodically inspect the bulbs, remove damaged specimens.

In the southern regions with positive temperatures in winter, sparaxis beds are mulched for the winter, covered with a layer of spruce branches. The bulbs overwinter in the soil, so the bush blooms early - in May-June.

Diseases and pests

Most diseases and pests bypass sparaxis. The danger is waterlogging, which can lead to fungal infections of the bulb. Need to improve drainage of beds and normalize watering.

Sparaxis reproduction

A convenient and quick way to propagate sparaxis is the babies that the mother bulb produces. Rules and subtleties of reproduction:

  • corms are removed from the soil after flowering is completed, until the foliage is completely dry;
  • baby bulbs are stored unseparated so that they do not lose moisture and do not dry out;
  • before planting, the babies are carefully cut off from the mother bulb, the cut point is treated with activated charcoal.

Young seedlings are not allowed to bloom, flower stalks are cut off within 2 years to grow onion.

Important: if you do not need to propagate sparaxis, the babies are still removed from the mother bulb so as not to deprive the flower stalk of nutrients.

Seed propagation of bulbs is rarely used - varietal qualities may be lost. The plant blooms from seeds after 3 years, when the bulb matures. Fully ripened and dried sparaxis seeds are planted in a loose substrate to a depth of 1 centimeter.

Soil sowing is possible only in very warm regions, greenhouse cultivation is used in the Middle lane. Before being transferred to a permanent place, sparaxis must spend 2 years without a transplant; seedlings cannot be disturbed earlier.

Landscape use

Small colorful sparaxis flowers look great in group plantings. In landscape design, the plant is used:

  • combined with ground cover plants for accent spots;
  • around ornamental shrubs;
  • in mixborders, rockeries;
  • as potted crops for home and gardens;
  • in monoflowers and with other bulbous plants.

Sparaxis stands for a long time in the cut and is used for bouquets.

Despite certain growing difficulties, flower growers fell in love with the bright African. Sparaxis brings a riot of colors and exotic notes to the design of familiar flower beds. Refined shades, geometrically traced details of the petals give the plots charm and unusualness.

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