Beekeeping

Beekeeping in Russia: where insect breeding areas are developed, breeds

Beekeeping in Russia: where insect breeding areas are developed, breeds
Anonim

Beekeeping in Russia is understood as a traditional direction of agriculture, which consists in the manufacture of valuable biologically active products for the population and industrial raw materials. At the same time, this industry is distinguished by certain features that all beginner beekeepers should certainly take into account. It is also worth getting acquainted with the most promising Russian regions and choosing the right breed of bees.

History

In Russia, people have been engaged in beekeeping since ancient times. It is believed that the heyday of this branch of agriculture was observed from the ninth to the eighteenth century. However, subsequently, forests began to be massively cut down, which led to the decline of this direction.

Until the end of the nineteenth century, beekeeping was primitive. Many bees lived in decks and nest boxes. At the same time, the productivity of bee colonies was no more than 3-4 kilograms. Beekeeping received a new stage of development in the Soviet Union. In 1934, the Department of Beekeeping was established under the People's Commissariat of Agriculture. In 1938, the number of bee colonies reached 8.6 million. At the same time, their productivity gradually increased.

In 1989, there were 8.5 million families in the USSR, each of which brought 14 kilograms of marketable honey. In advanced farms, the productivity indicator was 35-40 kilograms.

In 1990, there were 4.3 million bee colonies in Russia. At the same time, 42 thousand tons of honey were produced in 1991. During 1991-2001, honey production was 50 thousand tons per year - mainly due to the private sector. In 1993-1998, the number of bee colonies decreased by 25%.

Beekeeping at present

According to the National Union of Beekeepers of the Russian Federation, in 2014, the yield of honey exceeded 102,000 tons. Subsequently, this indicator was at the same level. A distinctive feature of modern beekeeping is the high percentage of counterfeit products on the market. Depending on the bee breeding area, this parameter is 30-70%.

In 2022-2023, scientists from the Higher School of Economics published studies according to which the number of bees in Russia has decreased by 40% over 10 years. If this trend continues, bees could completely disappear as early as 2035. This will cause an ecological disaster. To avoid this, on March 20, 2022, the all-Russian public organization "Union of Russian Beekeepers" was formed.Her work is aimed at supporting the industry.

The main advantages of beekeeping in Russia include the following:

  1. Relatively small initial capital. It is permissible to start your activity in this area with the purchase of literally a few bee families and hives. Special clothing and equipment will also be required.
  2. No taxes for amateurs. At the same time, it is quite possible to sell surplus products.
  3. Favorable climatic conditions in the country.

Development Centers

Today in Russia there are the following centers for the development of beekeeping:

  1. Belgorod region. This is a convenient location for this area. 6400 beekeepers are registered here. The region is constantly using new programs, plans and projects that are aimed at increasing honey production.
  2. Volgograd region. Although most of the area is covered by forests, and meadows account for only 10%, beekeeping is developing well in this region. There are 2,500 private beekeepers in the region.
  3. Bryansk region. This region is characterized by mixed nature, which is suitable for the effective development of beekeeping. Most of the honey is made by amateur beekeepers. The largest farm includes 120 bee colonies.
  4. Kemerovo region. It is located in the southeast of Siberia. That is why in 1957 there was a need to create a special Kemerovo system. It is based on 4 inspections of hives in the spring - cleaning, quick inspection, sanitization, revision. Breeding bees in this region is considered a difficult process, since it is necessary to constantly cull weak colonies, replacing them with strong and productive ones. In addition, the system provides for the replacement of the old uterus. This helps increase productivity.
  5. Voronezh region. This region is distinguished by favorable conditions for the development of beekeeping. It is characterized by relatively humid summers and a warm climate. Today there are many stationary and nomadic apiaries.
  6. Krasnoyarsk Territory. This is a very productive region. At the same time, beekeeping is becoming more and more difficult. This is due to a significant decrease in the number of bee colonies.
  7. Rostov region. In this region, beekeeping is developing rapidly. And this is more typical for the northwest. This part of the region is distinguished by a favorable climate and a flat territory, which is presented in the form of steppes.

Suitable Breeds

For breeding on the territory of Russia, it is permissible to use different breeds of bees. In this case, the most preferred options include the following:

  1. Middle Russian - have become widespread. They are large in size and can withstand severe frosts. Such individuals are characterized by resistance to many diseases. They are also highly productive and have very prolific queens.
  2. Buckfast - bees of this breed are considered the most popular collectors of honey. This is the only completely artificial breed today. These individuals have many advantages. They easily adapt to any climate and are highly resistant to disease. Also, bees are characterized by a very sharp sense of smell and peaceful nature. They do not swarm actively and produce a lot of honey.
  3. Ukrainian steppe - in appearance, representatives of this breed resemble Central Russian bees. They are gray in color with small elements of yellow and black. The mass of one individual is 110 milligrams, and the proboscis reaches 6.7 millimeters. Such bees easily tolerate cold and are highly productive.They are characterized by strong immunity and a high level of swarming.
When buying a bee colony, you should focus on the characteristics of a particular breed. The name always contains direct indications regarding the climate. For example, Central Russian bees are able to withstand almost any frost. After wintering, they bring a lot of honey.

To choose the right breed of bees, it is recommended to focus on a number of parameters. The main characteristics include the state of the immune system, the tendency to swarm, productivity, aggressiveness, fertility of the uterus.

Beekeeping in Russia is considered a promising and profitable area. At the same time, it is characterized by a number of features. To get a lot of quality honey, it is important to choose the right breed of bees depending on the climate and other local features.

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