Omshanik for bees: what is it and varieties, how to build with your own hands

Omshanik for bees: what is it and varieties, how to build with your own hands

When breeding bees, it is important to create a safe place for wintering. It helps to protect honey insects from temperature changes and strong gusts of wind. In regions with severe winters, the construction of a bee house is considered the only way to protect them from frost. At the same time, it is important to choose the right structure for the structure and strictly adhere to the recommendations for its construction.

What is Omshanik

This term means a room for keeping bees in the winter season. There are a number of techniques that allow you to leave the hives on the street.However, beekeepers who use traditional methods of breeding honey plants still prefer to use a warmed room for wintering. This helps the bees to endure harsh climatic conditions.

With the help of omshanik, it is possible to protect houses with bees from low temperatures, gusts of wind and street noise. The presence of a special room for wintering allows you to save on the insulation of the hives and reduce the consumption of food by bees. Also, this method helps to reduce the percentage of death of insects and increase the life of the hives.

Types of Omshaniks

Depending on the location, all omshaniki are divided into 2 varieties - underground and aboveground. It is worth choosing a specific option taking into account your capabilities.


Experienced beekeepers prefer just such designs.They allow you to maintain a stable temperature throughout the winter. Even in cold weather, the room does not need additional heating. The disadvantages of underground structures are the need for high construction costs and the need for lighting.

Alternatively, a semi-underground structure can be used. It is deepened by only 1-1.5 meters. This option is used with a high occurrence of groundwater. At the same time, the semi-underground room has to be insulated.


The construction of such a mansion is considered a more affordable option. If the breeding of bees stops for some reason, the room can be used as a barn. It is permissible to use natural light in the ground omshanik. At the same time, such a room must be insulated.

Pros of application

Building dungarees has many advantages:

  • beautiful preservation of bee colonies;
  • insect he alth benefits;
  • ability to lay eggs in comfortable conditions;
  • no sudden temperature fluctuations in the room;
  • increasing the useful life of hives;
  • feed savings.

Bees in the bees do not move, do not get food and do not raise offspring. This helps them conserve energy and accumulate body fat.

Basic Requirements

Before starting construction, you should decide on the location and size of the structure. If the site has groundwater, it is recommended to give preference to a combined omshanik with a partial recess. The dimensions of the building should provide convenient care for the hives, their installation and removal.

The basic requirements for omshaniks include the following:

  • compact size;
  • the presence of passages between the hives;
  • lighting in underground structures;
  • availability of lifts for easy installation of beehives;
  • create one entrance for 300 hives - more will require 2 entrances from opposite sides;
  • double or shed roof that does not accumulate snow;
  • creating conditions to maintain the temperature at +5 degrees;
  • ventilation system equipment.
When the temperature exceeds +13 degrees, honey bees start working. This negatively affects their condition in winter. It is important to consider that flight activity does not occur outside the temperature range of +10-43 degrees. Therefore, in the winter hut it is important to maintain the parameters at the level of 0 … +7 degrees.

Optimal air humidity in heated structures should be 50-60%. Without heating, it decreases somewhat. In severe frosts, it is important to monitor this indicator. Use a fan to avoid condensation.

Establishment and construction rules

In order for the construction of the omshanik to be successful, it is important to adhere to a number of rules and recommendations.


First you need to choose a place for the construction of a winter hut. In this case, the following requirements should be taken into account:

  1. Presence of protection against moisture. To check the depth of groundwater in the spring, you need to dig several holes. If water begins to accumulate in them, such an area is not suitable for construction. You should also make sure that there is no risk of floods.
  2. The location of the winter hut. It is best to make an omshanik not far from the apiary. This will make it easier to move the hives. It is best to build a structure in a ravine or on a small slope. This will provide her with protection from the wind.
  3. Entrance location. It is recommended to do it from the south side. Due to this, less wind will enter the open room. If more than a hundred bee colonies live in the winter hut, you need to make 2 entrances from opposite sides.
  4. Determining the area. When drawing up a design scheme, it is required to take into account that the size of the passage between the racks should be approximately 1 meter. At the same time, a rack for arranging hives in 1 row is made at least 70 centimeters, in 2 rows - 160. The distance between the hives should be about 20 centimeters. Do not install hives close to the wall. Given these parameters, you can determine the total area of the building.
  5. Calculation of expenses. It is important to determine in advance the amount of materials that will be needed for construction. It is also necessary to mark the future territory of the Omshanik.

Selection of materials

During the construction of an omshanik, materials will be required not only for the construction of the room itself, but also for the creation of ventilation, shelving and doors. To make a winter house, you need to prepare the following:

  1. Wood - logs or bars. It is best to take strong wood that retains heat well.
  2. Stone - you will need bricks or ordinary stones.
  3. Metal - you need to take pipes, channel, corners.
  4. Insulation - you will need to take a film, adobe, reed slabs.

Be sure to pay attention to the construction of such parts of the winter hut:

  • floor - can be wood, clay or concrete;
  • walls - for underground structures they are made of brick, and in other cases - of wood;
  • roof - can be made from boards;
  • overlap - reinforced concrete is used.


To build an underground omshanik, you should do the following:

  1. Dig a pit. Its depth should be 3-5.5 meters. After digging, it is worth carefully leveling the area.
  2. Make the floor. In this case, the bottom of the pit must be poured with concrete or covered with boards.
  3. Build walls. The best solution would be a double layer of brick. Before laying the material, it must be moistened in water. Dry bricks may crack. The gaps between the bricks and the floor need to be filled with clay.
  4. Make a roof. Boards need to be laid on the frame. They need to be reinforced with concrete mortar and covered with a film. Also, the structure must be laid with a reinforcing mesh in 2 layers and poured with concrete. It will take 1 week to set.
  5. Fix the room. The steps must be laid out from concrete slabs and poured with mortar. You can make a vestibule in front of the entrance. This will help keep you warm.
  6. Make sure there are no gaps. When they are identified, it is required to cover them with a layer of mounting foam.

Heating and ventilation

Proper ventilation is of great importance in the construction of a pit. It can be inlet or outlet. The first type is constructed using ventilation pipes. At the same time, they are sent to the holes in the walls near the floor. Exhaust ventilation is mounted in holes located in the ceiling.

When constructing supply ventilation, the outlet must be covered with a mesh. This will help keep mice out of the cage. Caps should be put on the ends of the pipes, which will provide protection from precipitation.

It is permissible to use a variety of devices to heat the winter hut. The most popular devices include infrared or electric heaters. Other equipment can also be used.

Omshanik is an important structure that helps the bees survive the harsh winter. Such designs can have different types, which allows each beekeeper to choose the appropriate option depending on their capabilities and preferences.

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