How to make layering bees in the easiest way: formation rules and 7 options

How to make layering bees in the easiest way: formation rules and 7 options

Buying a whole swarm of bees is a troublesome and rather expensive task. In beekeeping, there are several ways to help breed a bee colony and increase the number of insects. It is useful for a beginner beekeeper to know how to make layering from existing bees in the simplest and most effective way. Each of the options has certain advantages and disadvantages, which are best familiarized with in advance.

What are they and what are they for?

Beginner beekeepers do not understand what layering is, why they should be done, whether they are really needed for a queen cell and a hive. Explanations:

  • layering is a way to update the bee colony after the spring culling of weak and old individuals and, as a result, rejuvenate the bee swarm, breeding insects;
  • a similar selection from the bee colony should be done every spring;
  • the procedure allows you to increase the collection of honey, increase the overall productivity of the hives. Attention! The layering procedure helps against the beginning swarming of insects, which can interfere with the beekeeper's honey collection and apiary care. The process is uncontrolled, which is why it causes so many difficulties;
  • technique allows you to strengthen the bee family.

Additional effects - getting rid of weak insects, infertile queens, replenishment of the swarm with young individuals. Beginning beekeepers need to familiarize themselves with the main requirements and principles of insect breeding.

Preparation of necessary equipment

To work on the process of obtaining layering, you will need to prepare the following tools:

  • bee house and insulation. Attention! Warming materials can be completely different - mineral wool, polystyrene foam, reeds, tow and more. Beekeepers choose what suits them best or just what is available. It is important to leave ventilation holes at the top and bottom;

  • 12 Interior Frames & Placemats;
  • prepared sugar syrup packaged in bags;
  • mother cells;
  • cell for selected uterus;
  • suitable swarm to move the bee colony.

Tools are prepared in advance, checking the integrity and strength of each element.

Formation layering

The procedure requires not only the preparation of the necessary equipment, but also compliance with a certain set of conditions. These include the following items:

  • work on the formation of layering begins in the spring (suitable months are April-May, but it is better to focus on temperature and weather conditions, in cold regions this moment shifts to the beginning of summer - June-July), the appropriate level is closer to +20 °C. Attention! After winter hibernation, the bees need to gain strength. It is not worth disturbing a weakened bee family - this way you can bring the bee family to death at the beginning of the honey season;
  • in order for the fertilization of the newly formed family to be successful, you need to track and, if necessary, add a certain number of drones;

  • bees should be quite active, fly well and eat nectar;
  • new bee colonies need to be created before the harvest (after that, insects usually weaken);
  • brood is selected from strong bee colonies;
  • from the mother's house you can take no more than two frames at a time;
  • non-flying insects should be included in the new family (flying insects may show aggression towards the young queen);
  • from early spring, you need to organize groups of individuals from those bee colonies that have already begun the swarming process;
  • the selected hives must have honeycombs - this point the beekeeper must check in advance.

Attention! The beekeeper needs to properly prepare new bee houses. Dwellings need to be inspected, insulated, and selected frames installed (honey and wax on the bars are required). Walls can be painted in different shades to help the bees navigate better.

New houses should be kept in shaded areas. It is important to collect infertile queens in time - more than 30% is lost during overflights and honey collection. After completing the preparatory measures, you need to familiarize yourself with the methods for forming layering and choose the appropriate option.

Spring layering

The process is recommended to be done every spring - this will help increase swarm productivity by 70%. Instructions for forming layering:

  • select several bee colonies (strong enough to separate), 6 frames are selected for the brood;
  • from one bee dwelling you can take no more than 2 frames with honey and wax;
  • for a new bee house it is better to choose multi-hull hives;
  • put the selected individuals in a new house;
  • as soon as the flying bees fly away to collect nectar, the queen should be placed in the hive.
The formed hive needs to be slightly moved away from the mother houses so that the individuals of the newly created family do not get confused. The process is completed in 3 weeks. After another 7 days, additional layers can be formed from the updated hive.

Layer in autumn

This option is not recommended, but is still used in apiaries with weakened or diseased individuals. Half of the bee family is separated and connected with a he althy bee family, then - with the second half - they do the same, connecting it with another strong swarm. The method allows you to save weakened bees until spring, allows them to get stronger and recuperate for the new season of honey collection. You can see the details in the following video.

From young bees

This layering method is suitable for working in warm weather. Action required:

  • make one from old and new - move frames;
  • in the center of the future bee house place a cup of food (honey or a mixture of nectar with perga);
  • reinforce 2 shelves with pupae (offspring) to the new bee house, install day larvae in the middle;
  • place partitions and insulate the bee house from several sides;
  • open the notch a little.

The barren queen needs to be replaced with a fertile queen. After a few days, you can move the updated bee house to the apiary. For the first days, it is better to install an additional feeder with syrup or water. The uterus is placed in the evening and released the next day.

From old bees

In this case, it is required to supplement the bee colony with old individuals with young offspring. Thus, the family will grow, additional layers will form.

From young and old bees

The main task of layer formation is to update the bee family and increase the number of strong individuals. Most beekeepers consider the option of combining young and old insects to be optimal. Features:

  • the procedure is carried out in August (you should be guided by the weather and temperature);
  • bees must be energetic, productive (in order to calmly transfer the resettlement and the formation of layering);
  • you will need to take into account the characteristics of the breed (nuances of feeding, care, reproduction).

The association is carried out in the same mode - first, the bee dwelling is prepared, top dressing, offspring are laid out, then the selected individuals are launched.

With fertilized uterus

In order for a new family to unite and start producing offspring (which means that the number of individuals in a swarm grows), a fetal queen is needed. There are several options for action:

  • buy a fetal uterus in a special nursery (they start selling them from May, the cost varies depending on the breed, some other features and starts from 100 euros);
  • bring the fetal queen by choosing one of the adult bees.

To form a layer with a fetal uterus, you need to select a fetal insect and place it under a small cap. The queen, which has ceased to be fetal, must be removed in a separate cage. Two days later, a mature mother liquor should be placed in the hive.

Attention! In order for the new fetal queen to be successfully integrated into the swarm, preliminary preparation is required. Layers begin to be prepared 5-6 weeks before the July honey harvest.

Layers in multi-body hives

The formation of updated bee colonies in multi-hull hives is slightly different. Instructions for a beginner beekeeper:

  • examine the empty case for damage and infections;
  • put inside 6-7 frames with honey, 3-4 filled combs;
  • add several frames with offspring of different ages (no more than three);
  • leave the uterus in the main family;
  • 8 hours after setting up the hive, a young or mature queen is added;
  • where the former queen remained, you need to place a feeder, close the entrance.

Attention! Ready-made hives with new bee colonies are placed in such a way that the notches look in different directions. It is important to insulate the nests from above (pillows are often used).

After a month, the nest needs to be expanded, for which you should do the following:

  • clean the bee house, carry out disinfection measures;
  • place 5 frames with honeycombs and foundation ( alternate);
  • the queen of the main bee family is moved to the second bee house.
For insurance, a third body can be placed between the first and second bodies. If the swarm occupies the territory of the corps by this time, you can add the next one.

Which method to choose

To choose one of the listed methods, you need to determine the state of the apiary and each hive separately. Features to consider:

  • device bee house - multi-tiered, single-frame or other;
  • number of weakened insects in the bee family;
  • the ability of the uterus to produce offspring;
  • beekeeper has certain skills;
  • temperature of the region (some layers are formed in April-May, other options can only be started in June).

Attention! If the experience of the beekeeper is not enough, it is better to choose prefabricated options for the formation of new bee families. It is important to determine the number of weak and strong individuals, to properly prepare the dwellings.

The formation of layering is a necessary stage in the development of an apiary. The procedure helps to increase the productivity of bee colonies, which means to increase the amount of honey collected from each hive. It is important to familiarize yourself with the insect dispersal process in advance in order to choose the appropriate method.

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