Preparing bees for winter: rules and step by step instructions for beginners

Preparing bees for winter: rules and step by step instructions for beginners

In order for the bee colony to be in good working condition by the beginning of the season, it is necessary to create comfortable conditions for the insects for wintering. In order to properly prepare the bees for winter, you need to pay attention to several points: a sufficient amount of high-quality food, proper insulation of the hive or preparation of the winter hut, providing the bees with complete rest and protection from annoying noise.

Preparing bee colonies for wintering

Thanks to the right organization, it is easy to create conditions for a long pleasant wintering of bees.

For beginner beekeepers, it is recommended to break the preparatory process into several stages:

  • timely provision of insects with complete food. To do this, it is important not to pump out all the honey during the main harvest period;
  • create conditions for building up the strength of bee colonies. It is the preparation of insects for the cold that will ensure a comfortable wintering;
  • rational assembly of nests.

It is also important to sanitize bees to prevent the occurrence and spread of diseases.

Fodder stocks

Since it is impossible to disturb bee colonies in winter, it is necessary to provide the necessary amount of food in the fall.

It is recommended to follow certain beekeeping rules:

  • climatic features are taken into account. In the northern regions, 28-30 kg of food is laid per bee colony, in the south - 18-20 kg, in mid-latitudes 23-25 kg;
  • feed quality. The honey of the first half of the bribe is considered the best. If honey is used for wintering, containing impurities of honeydew substances, diarrhea begins in insects. This can lead to a large scree of bees;
  • It is preferable to use light brown combs for foraging, which help to retain heat. If honey is harvested in old combs, the likelihood of diseases increases, the crystallization of the product accelerates.

It is recommended to cook food slightly above the norm for wintering. Since weak colonies have to spend more energy on heating.

Bee warming

Preparing bee colonies for wintering includes the procedure for warming the hive. This should not be neglected in areas with frosty climatic conditions. Depending on the weather, it is necessary to take into account the quantity and quality of insulation, methods of preparing insects for wintering, control of bee colonies. Some beekeepers prepare special insulated rooms (omshanik) for wintering bees. Buildings perform several functions:

  • protect insects from gusty cold winds, sudden changes in temperature, loud noise;
  • allow to reduce feed consumption;
  • help extend the life of the hives.
Beekeepers can prepare three types of omshaniki for wintering (underground, semi-underground, above-ground). The underground type is popular. Advantages of the premises: reliable protection from blowing winds, a stable temperature is maintained (between 0 °С and +2… +4 °С), bees hibernate quietly in a stable environment.In the premises, the hives are arranged as follows: stronger families are placed on the lower racks, and weak ones on the upper ones. It is recommended to maintain humidity in the winter hut at 80-85%.

Experienced beekeepers advise not to hurry with the transfer of insects to the premises until stable frosty weather is established (morning temperature -5 … -7 ° C), since early frosts often alternate with warm days, favorable for the late flight of bees.

Wintering outside

In the conditions of keeping bees in the middle lane, beekeepers most often leave insects to winter on the street. In such cases, you need to properly insulate each hive:

  • shields are used to fence houses from the outside. When constructing a fence, it is important to keep the distance between the shield and the walls of the hive;
  • narrow space is filled with the right insulation (in which pests of bees will not start). Suitable materials: dry walnut foliage, fallen needles. It is not recommended to use straw in which mice can get in;
  • leave free space near the entrances to provide ventilation due to air access to the hive.

As an external insulation, you can use natural moss, polystyrene. To reduce the number of walls blown by the winds, the houses are built with a wall, close to each other. Hives are installed on elevated areas to prevent spring flooding. Advantages of open wintering: earlier spring flight, insects are less pampered. The main disadvantage is the difficulty of controlling the condition of bee colonies due to snowdrifts or sheathing.

Wintering is an important stage in the life of a bee colony. During this period, it is necessary to provide the insects with rest, a sufficient amount of food, and comfortable conditions. In the second half of wintering, you need to regularly monitor the condition of the bees, the quantity and quality of food.

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