Question answer

Siberian spruce: description and varieties, rules for planting and tree care

Siberian spruce: description and varieties, rules for planting and tree care

Siberian spruce is a very popular crop that belongs to the Pine family. It has different types, which are distinguished by excellent decorative properties. Due to this, the plant is often used in landscape design for the design of summer cottages. To get a strong and he althy culture, it is important to follow certain guidelines.

View description

Siberian spruce Picea obovata is considered the most frost-resistant plant of the Pine family. Most of the crops from this group can easily withstand a long drop in temperature and frosts of -45 degrees.Therefore, they thrive in regions with extremely low temperatures. Such plants are straight-stemmed large trees 20-30 meters high.

This type of crop is characterized by a branched root system, which has underdeveloped central rods. The trunk diameter is 70-100 centimeters. Young trees have thin, light brown bark. It becomes dark brown with age. At the same time, deep furrows appear from below. The upper layers gradually exfoliate in the form of thin plates. A characteristic feature of the Siberian spruce is the presence of short reddish hairs that cover annual shoots.

The tree has a pyramidal crown with a clearly defined top. If the skeletal branches are damaged by severe frosts, several peaks may appear on the plant at once. Lateral shoots are densely branched. They start growing too close to the ground.

Siberian spruce is characterized by rather rigid tetrahedral needles of a dark green color. Needles have a length of 1.5-2 centimeters. They do not have stripes or veins. Many hybrid varieties feature dove, golden or bluish-green needles.

This plant has small buds. Their length does not exceed 5-6 centimeters. The cones are dark brown in color and have rounded scales. Ripening occurs in September. Inside are dark gray seeds about 4 millimeters in size. They have thin and light wings.

Siberian spruce is considered to be very demanding on the composition of the soil. The tree needs high humidity and good lighting. In addition, the plant is sensitive to air pollution.

The life span of this culture reaches 350-380 years. The plant begins to bear fruit from 15-20 years. Forest trees mature no earlier than 25-30 years.

Distribution and range

In the wild, this species of spruce is common in northern Europe, in the Urals, in the Amur region, Mongolia. Also, this culture is in Western and Eastern Siberia, in northern China. In the valleys, the plant forms pure forest stands. The culture can coexist with fir, larch, poplar and other plants. On the slopes of the mountains, the plant is located singly. It rarely rises more than 450 meters above sea level. In this case, the plant requires moist fertile soil.

In the northern regions of the Far East, there are island habitats of Siberian spruces. At the same time, solid stands are extremely rare. In Kamchatka, the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin, Siberian spruce is considered induced. It does not occur in nature.

Tree varieties

Today there are several varieties of such firs, each of which has certain characteristics.


Siberian blue spruce Picea obovata reaches a height of 30 meters. In this case, the size of the trunk in diameter is 1.5 meters. The plant is characterized by a conical crown and straight branches raised upwards. The culture is characterized by gray bark and hard blue needles. The length of the needles reaches 3 centimeters. Also, the tree is decorated with brown cones, the length of which reaches 10 centimeters.


Siberian Pechora spruce is characterized by slow development and reaches a height of 35 meters. It is characterized by gray needles 1.5 centimeters long. It has a conical shape and a prominent crown.


This variety of spruce is characterized by a weak root system and a high degree of windage of the crown. Culture is not recommended to be planted close to fences and power lines. The minimum distance should be 4 meters.In this case, the depth of groundwater should be at least 2 meters. Do not place Siberian spruce near fruit plants.

It is best to plant a tree in late autumn. It is not worth doing this earlier, because there is a risk of root rotting and damage by bacterial microorganisms. Planting recesses for seedlings 2-3 years old should have a depth and width of about 60 centimeters. The extracted substrate should be mixed with peat, wood ash and superphosphate.

It is recommended to add dolomite flour or lime to acidic soil. Drainage should be poured at the bottom of the recess. It may consist of expanded clay, sand or gravel. The thickness of such a layer should be 20 centimeters.

The seedling is placed in such a way that the root neck is located just above the surface of the earth. At the same time, it is not worth ramming the soil heavily. After planting, the plant needs to be watered. Then it certainly needs to be mulched. This can be done with sawdust or pine needles.


When caring for this coniferous plant, you need to follow a number of rules. Under natural conditions, small spruces grow in dense undergrowth. Therefore, at first you should not place them in the light. Such plants need to be shaded. Bright sunlight leads to burns of young needles. In addition, the tree loses a large amount of moisture.

Mature plants need open areas. In extreme cases, partial shade is suitable for them. In deep shade, the culture will not look lush. In addition, the upper part will stretch in the direction of the sun, and the tree will become asymmetrical.

Siberian spruce is considered a moisture-loving plant. Therefore, in hot weather, it is necessary to provide the culture with the correct water regime. Young trees need to be watered once a week. Mature spruces may also need watering. This is especially true after a winter with little snow and with high soil density.

Sick and dry branches can be pruned. This contributes to the he alth of the tree. Siberian spruces are not too demanding on the level of soil fertility. Therefore, they do not need to make additional dressings.

If the tree develops poorly or turns yellow, it is worth using top dressing for conifers. They contain fewer active ingredients than foliar fertilizers.

Pest control

Harmful insects can lead to a significant deterioration in the appearance of plants. The most common parasites that affect Siberian spruces include:

  1. Gnawing - eat tree needles. This category includes flies, caterpillars, beetles. They mainly affect young needles.
  2. Sucking - this group includes Hermes, ticks, worms. They also include scale insects and aphids. These small parasites are able to form large colonies and cause great damage to plants.
  3. Bark beetles - these include barbels, weevils, grinders. These pests mainly infect injured or felled trees. However, sometimes he althy crops also suffer from them.
  4. Pineworms - This category includes beetles, butterflies and moths.

To cope with pests, trees need to be regularly inspected and treated with insecticides. To combat ticks, it is worth using acaricidal preparations.


Siberian spruce wood contains a minimum of resinous components and has a low degree of hardness. Most often it is used for the manufacture of finishing materials, furniture, alcohol. Also, this material is used for the production of acetic acid, charcoal, paper.

Like the common spruce, the Siberian variety contains a large amount of valuable essential oils. They are often used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Also, these substances are actively used in traditional medicine.

Needles are characterized by pronounced antiseptic properties. It is used to combat diseases of the lungs, digestive organs, and skin. Also, the substance helps to cope with pathologies of the musculoskeletal system.

This type of spruce is often used in landscape design. It decorates parks and city streets. The needles of the plant produce a lot of phytoncides, which help to destroy pathogenic microorganisms.

Siberian spruce is a fairly common crop that has excellent decorative properties and benefits he alth. To grow a crop successfully, it is important to provide it with competent care.

This page in other languages: