Soil for an apple tree: what kind he likes - acidic or alkaline, what kind of soil is needed

Soil for an apple tree: what kind he likes - acidic or alkaline, what kind of soil is needed

Apple tree is an unpretentious plant, however, in order for it to bear fruit well, it needs special care. The soil for planting an apple tree must be suitable and have optimal acidity. Therefore, before planting a plant, it is necessary to study the acidity of the soil, after which it can be cultivated. If the indicators are normal, the seedling can be planted without pre-treatment.

The importance of soil when growing apple trees

You can't plant an apple tree anywhere. When planting it, it is necessary to take into account the composition of the soil, as this will greatly affect the further fruiting of the tree. Consider how exactly the soil affects the state of the apple tree:

  • If the earth is clayey (the so-called heavy soil), then insufficient oxygen is supplied to the roots. As a result, the tree has weak immunity, it develops poorly, gives small fruits.
  • Apple trees can tolerate acid soil. But if it's too acidic, it causes the tree to wilt, making it often sick.
  • Alkaline soils are also not suitable for apple trees. They negatively affect the condition of the trees.
  • It is not recommended to plant seedlings in places where groundwater flows. This reduces the winter hardiness of the plant, it can die even with slight winter frosts. Also, if the roots reach water, they can start to rot. And this can lead to the death of the tree.

Therefore, before planting a seedling in the soil, it is recommended to conduct some tests or study the vegetation of the area.

What should the soil be like?

Apple loves loose, plowed, sufficiently moist soils. Chernozem, sandy and loamy soils are suitable for it. At the same time, groundwater should lie at least 1.5-2 m from the surface.

Before planting seedlings, it is recommended to dig up the territory.

If the earth is acidic, it is watered with alkaline water - diluted with 100 g of lime in 5 liters of water. If the soil on the site is unsuitable (for example, alkaline), local cultivation can be carried out. To do this, you need to dig a hole, plant a tree, and fill it with fertile soil from above. It can be taken in the forest or on the field. But in this case, after 2-3 years, it will be necessary to dig up the area around the tree, and bring in fertile soil there as well.

How to determine acidity?

Each type of soil has a specific acidity that may or may not be suitable for planting an apple tree.Therefore, it is recommended to study the table below.

Suitable for planting apple trees Suitable. Chernozem6.5-7.5The best option. S alt flats7.5-9.5Not suitable.
Peat-podzolic3-5 Not suitable.
Podzolic4.5-5.5 Not suitable. But local cultivation is allowed. Suitable. But sometimes its liming is required.

To approximate the acidity of the soil, you need to pay attention to growing weeds. The fact is that their normal growth also requires a certain composition of the soil:

  • mosses, maryannik, crowberry grow on very acidic soils;
  • medium acid soil is optimal for wild rosemary, mint, bearberry;
  • rose hips, bluebells, kupena, quinoa, coltsfoot can grow on slightly acidic and neutral; nettle;
  • alkaline suitable for wormwood, alfalfa, sedge.

To more accurately determine the acidity, you can use litmus strips. They can be purchased at some pharmacies, but more often they are found in specialized chemical stores. To conduct the study, it is necessary to take a small amount of soil at a depth of 30 cm, fill it with distilled water to make a mushy mass.

After 15-20 minutes, dip a litmus strip into the resulting solution. It will immediately turn into a certain color. It must be compared with a special scale on the package.

You can also do the following at home. Take 50 g of the studied soil, add 1 tsp to it. crushed chalk and 100 ml of water.Pour the finished mixture into a glass bottle, and cover it with a rubber fingertip on top. If it gradually begins to rise, then the environment is acidic.

Correction of soil acidity

Before you start cultivating the soil, you need to know the approximate acidity. After all, the apple tree tolerates acidic soil better than alkaline. Therefore, it is necessary to make lime carefully, in small portions. If the soil is slightly acidic, it is enough to add a small amount of wood ash or horse manure to it. This will not only reduce the acidity of the soil, but also increase its fertility.

But if the soil is characterized by a high content of alkali, then it will not be easy to cultivate it. In this case, it is better to dig a hole and replace the soil in it with purchased compounds. Great for this purpose:

  • "Akvais". It contains high-moor peat, which slightly acidifies the alkaline soil. This is a very fertile soil. Thanks to its application, the plant will develop well.
  • "Ecoflora". This is a universal soil, which includes peat, sand and vermiculite. Has the right acidity for an apple tree.
  • "Garden land". It is characterized by an optimal pH level - 5.5-6.0.

To ensure the normal growth and development of the tree and get good yields, you will need to regularly dig up the top layers of the soil, introducing ammonium sulfate and peat.

How to increase fertility?

To get a good harvest of apples, trees must be planted in fertile soil. To increase its fertility, you can do the following:

  • Water regularly. Thanks to this, earthworms will crawl to it. Quality soil is one that is well drained of moisture and minerals. To do this, it must have a uniform structure and not be clogged. Earthworms are natural cultivators. They perfectly loosen it and form biohumus. In addition, the worms do not have a negative effect on the human body, they are completely safe.
  • Use of organic fertilizers. Chemicals can also be used, but organics are safer. A great option is compost. But other means can also be used. For example, some gardeners recommend watering an apple tree with weed tincture. For its preparation, it is necessary to collect 50 liters of rainwater and 5 kg of weeds. Plants can be crushed or thrown into a barrel unchanged. Leave to infuse for 10 days, strain and use such water for irrigation (it must first be diluted - take 5 liters of water per 1 liter of liquid).
  • Planting green manure. These are plants that are called "green fertilizers". They improve the structure and composition of the soil. It becomes porous, thanks to which it passes water well. In addition, green manure enriches it with phosphorus, nitrogen, calcium and other macronutrients. Therefore, it is recommended that legumes, cereals, radish, clover grow next to the apple tree.
  • Crop rotation. An apple tree is recommended to be planted in a place where various crops grew. For this, crop rotation is recommended - the annual alternation of crops. If potatoes, corn, tomatoes and other plants constantly grew on the site, this impoverishes the soil. Therefore, it is not recommended to plant fruit trees in this place.
  • Mulching. Every year before the onset of cold weather, it is recommended to mulch the root zone. That is, it should be covered with mature compost, peat, dried grass. This will not only prevent the apple tree from freezing, but also serve as an excellent fertilizer.

To quickly enrich the soil composition, you can simultaneously use several methods at once.

Selection of fertilizers by soil type

Soils are divided into types, as they differ in the amount of humus contained and porosity. From this we can say that different species provide the plant in different ways with the necessary elements. Therefore, it is necessary to apply certain fertilizers, choosing which, it is necessary to take into account the type of soil:

  • fertilize clay soil with peat, vegetable compost, humus, wood ash;
  • horse manure and wood ash are suitable for loam;
  • peat, cow dung, azofoska and other fertilizers are suitable to improve the characteristics of sandy soil;
  • You can fertilize peat-marshy soil with compost, sawdust, manure, as well as chemical phosphorus-potassium fertilizers;
  • podzolic soils are fertilized with manure, humus and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.

Organic fertilizers are suitable for almost all types of soil. However, they are safer, but no less effective.

Common mistakes when choosing soil

Very often when choosing soil for planting an apple tree, inexperienced gardeners make some mistakes:

  • Choose any free seat. If the land in this area is of poor quality, the plant will grow poorly or die.
  • They plant a tree where the old apple tree grew. This is wrong, as a glycoside has accumulated in the soil, which negatively affects young plants. But in the place where the plum or cherry grew, the seedling will be fine.
  • Without preliminary research, soil cultivation is carried out. If it was alkaline, more alkalization will occur when lime is added. Therefore, it will become unusable.

In addition, you need to choose the right area for landing. If there is a slope, it is better to plant an apple tree on top. Below, it will be more exposed to spring frosts, so the flowers may fall off.

Thus, you need to choose the right soil for the apple tree. Otherwise, the plant will suffer and bear fruit poorly.

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