Structure of a bee: anatomy and arrangement of body parts, how many paws

Structure of a bee: anatomy and arrangement of body parts, how many paws

The structure of a bee is characterized by a number of features. Each individual is ideally adapted for the life and development of the family. The torso of a worker has everything you need to perform a wide range of tasks. They consist in the construction and maintenance of hives, the collection and processing of food, the care of offspring and protection. Beekeeping is considered a very difficult occupation. To do it successfully, it is important to have a lot of knowledge. Of great importance is the anatomy of insects.

Description of the bee

Bees have a segmented body. It contains such fragments - head, thoracic region, abdomen. The body of the bees is covered with hairs, which are the organs of touch. In addition, they provide reliable protection of the body from pollution.


The external structure of the head includes the following elements:

  • 2 compound eyes and 3 simple eyes;
  • antennas that provide olfactory and tactile functions;
  • glands that produce pheromones;
  • proboscis that pulls up and twists;
  • powerful jaw that kneads and shapes wax.

Insects have gnawing mouthparts. Such a structure is considered unique and is found exclusively in bees.


The thoracic region of the honey bee includes the following elements:

  • 2 pairs of wings of different sizes;
  • 6 legs.

Wing veins include chitin. This substance provides the strength and lightness of the aircraft.


The structure of the abdomen includes 6 rings. Each of them includes tergite and sternite. The first term is used to refer to the dorsal half rings, and the second to the abdominal ones. With each other, these elements are fastened with soft membranes. This ensures freedom of movement for each fragment. Due to this, the abdomen grows in length and width. The main internal organs are hidden behind it.


Bee legs are characterized by multifunctionality. They support the body. Thanks to this, the bees move and clean the body. In addition, in working individuals, the legs are responsible for collecting pollen and forming wax balls.

Each bee has 3 pairs of legs, which consist of 5 segments.

They are distinguished by a mobile connection. The front paws are characterized by the presence of brushes that help insects clean their eyes, mouth, antennae. These elements scrape pollen from the body. Also, the middle legs are involved in its removal. They are covered with many hairs, which makes it easier to sweep the pollen.

The hind limbs are also highly mobile. On the outside of the paws is a basket. In it, the insects form an obnozhka, which will be moved to the hive. Such a complex structure of the legs is typical only for working individuals. The rest of the bees are distinguished by a simpler structure of the limbs.

Internal Anatomy

The main task of the anatomical structure of the internal organs is the production of honey.

Each of the elements has its own characteristics.

Nervous system

The structure of the nervous system includes 3 sections - central, sympathetic, peripheral. The central section includes the brain. It also contains the ventral chain of nerves that replace the spinal cord. The frontal node is the beginning of the sympathetic department, which is responsible for the work of the digestive, circulatory and respiratory organs.

Because the brain is considered the main node of the nervous system, it contains most of the neurons. The maximum number of such components is present in the mushroom body and in the visual lobe.

The functions of the bee affect the size of the brain. In drones, it is considered the largest. At the same time, the maximum number of developed sections is observed in working individuals.

Nerve cells, or neurons, are considered the main structural units of the nervous system. They have a single long process that transmits nerve impulses. The structure also includes a branched process. It is able to receive and transmit signals from other neurons.

Circulatory system

Bees are characterized by an open circulatory system. In this case, the blood always moves in a specific direction. This effect can be achieved due to the coordinated functioning of the aorta, heart, dorsal and abdominal diaphragms.

The heart resembles a long tube and is located along the back. In the chest is the aorta, which delivers blood to the head. The structure of the tube includes 5 drops, which are connected through partition valves. They pass blood in a certain direction - from the abdomen to the head. In a calm state, the pulsation of the heart is 60-70 beats per minute. During the flight, this figure increases to 150.

The dorsal and abdominal diaphragms are also part of the circulatory system. They are responsible for the flow of blood in the body. Blood moves to the legs, antennae and wings due to the bubbles that are located in the area of the base of these parts of the body.

Reproductive system

Bee females have 2 varieties. These include queens and workers. However, only the first species can produce high-quality offspring. There is usually one queen in a bee colony. Workers are characterized by reproduced sex organs.

There are no developed tubules in the ovaries and oviducts. They begin their development only under specific conditions - for example, the queen died, and the worker bees had to change their diet. This enables the females to lay eggs. However, they do not have a seed receptacle, and therefore the eggs are unfertilized. Only males can be born from them.

In the uterus, about 150 tubes enter the ovary, in which one mature egg is located. In this case, the vagina is connected to the ovaries by a paired oviduct. The seminal receptacle is also connected with a narrow fragment of the vagina. There is also a channel that performs the functions of a kind of dispenser.He at the right time skips a few spermatozoa. Upon fertilization, the egg will hatch into a working individual. If it doesn't happen, a drone will appear.


This item is a means of protection or defense of the bee. It also assists in laying eggs. The sting is characteristic only for females. In appearance, it resembles a needle and is an ovipositor.

The sting is at the end of the abdomen. It is covered by the extreme segments. In this part of the body there are 3 systems of glands - small, lubricating and large poisonous. The sting itself resembles a saw in appearance. This allows him to get stuck in the tissues of the enemy. However, the bee loses it and dies.

The longer the sting is in the victim, the more poison enters the enemy's body. The poison is a clear liquid that has a special aroma and bitter taste. When exposed to air, it quickly acquires a crystalline structure.


The honey bee is considered the third insect whose genome is known. It contains 300 million base pairs of DNA. According to the first studies, this species appeared in Africa, after which it migrated to Europe in two waves. However, a later study of the genome of bees showed that they arrived from Asia about 300,000 years ago and rapidly spread throughout Africa and Europe.

Digestive system

Such a system is divided into 3 fragments:

  • first - includes mouth, pharynx, esophagus, honey goiter;
  • second - this section includes the stomach;
  • third - contains intestines.

The absorption, digestion and transformation of nectar into honey is done by the glands that are located in the head and thoracic region. The esophagus is a continuation of the pharynx. As it expands, it forms a crop to store honey.

The stomach is next. In fact, it is a gut in which food is digested. The third section is the intestines. It includes 2 intestines - small and straight.

Respiratory system

Insects have a powerful respiratory system that covers almost the entire body. Inhalation is made through many sections in the trunk - 3 pairs on the chest and 6 on the abdomen. In the spiracles, the air passes through the hairs, is cleaned and enters the air sacs, which are connected to each other. After that, oxygen is carried through the trachea throughout the body. Exhalation is made through the third pair of spiracles, which are located in the thoracic region.

The structure of the body of a bee is distinguished by a number of important features. All the characteristic features of these insects are aimed at the successful collection of honey.

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