The structure of the wasp: a description of the species and anatomy, how many wings and other body parts it has

The structure of the wasp: a description of the species and anatomy, how many wings and other body parts it has

Most people don't see much difference between bees and wasps, and that's not correct. Although they belong to the same species, insects differ significantly in their structure and lifestyle. Unlike bees that feed on nectar and pollen, wasps are predators that prey on small insects and do not disdain food waste. What else do insects that look similar at first glance differ in, we will look at the details further, having studied the structure of an ordinary wasp.

Origin of species and description

Unusual representatives of the fauna, due to their huge eyes and appearance, resemble alien creatures from science fiction films.Wasps are bright representatives of the Hymenoptera order. Since scientists are still debating which species to include minke whales, they were combined with all stinging insects, except for bees and ants, and are considered representatives of the stalked-bellied suborder.

There are many varieties of wasps, differing mainly in their size and color. But insects have the same structure.

  • Females are always much larger than males. Sizes of females range from 1.8 to 2 cm, males - from 1.2 to 1.5 cm. In latitudes with a tropical and subtropical climate, you can find varieties of insects up to 5.5 cm in size.
  • The color of most varieties is bright, which in nature means increased danger or toxicity. The body of insects is painted in contrasting stripes and spots of black and bright yellow. Also in nature, rainbow wasps and plain black individuals are found.
  • A special organ produces a poison that, when bitten, can cause severe allergic reactions.Wasp stings are very painful, felt for several days. In some cases, they are accompanied by swelling of the internal organs or an increase in body temperature. After the bite, it is recommended to take a long-acting antiallergic drug.

Just like bees, wasps have a stinger. If in honey workers it is notched and remains at the site of the bite, and the insect dies, then in the wasp the sting is smooth and can be used by one individual several times.

Wasps rarely attack first and show aggression in the following cases:

  • defend their nest;
  • trying to defend prey;
  • react negatively to sudden movements and strong smells.

Poisonous minke whales are able to produce a small amount of honey, which they feed on themselves and feed their future offspring. The taste and texture of such a product is significantly different from the usual bee honey. Wasp nectar has a less sweet taste and thicker texture.

Due to their hunting skills, wasps are an important layer for flora and fauna. Minke whales actively exterminate harmful insects and their offspring, thereby saving crops of various crops. Wasps are also good pollinators for fruit, vegetable, cereal and berry plantations.

In medicine, wasp venom is used to make ointments and various drugs that have anti-inflammatory and tonic effects on the human body.

Interesting! In South America, there is a variety of honey wasps called Polybia Occidentalis. The first mention of the healing wasp nectar refers to the ancient tribes of the Mayan people.

Anatomy of a wasp

The structure and lifespan of female and male individuals differ. The main function of males is the fertilization of queens, after which they die.

The life span of males is about 14 days.

Queens, in addition to reproducing offspring, are looking for and improving the nest. The life of the uterus is about 1 year, it ends with the onset of cold weather.

The main parts of the wasp's body are the abdomen, head and chest. On the head are eyes, a mouth represented by well-developed jaws, and antennae. 6 pairs of legs and 4 wings are attached to the chest. The abdomen consists of special scales and ends with a sting. The sting, in turn, is connected to a special gland that produces poison.

Important! The structure of the oral organs directly depends on the variety of wasps. In predatory individuals, they are more powerful, well developed. Wasps that feed on flower nectar and pollen have jaws designed for liquid food.


The head of insects is large with a noticeable expansion in diameter. Complex eyes, antennae and mouth organs are placed on the head.

The jaws are powerful, they can develop both a gnawing type and for taking liquid food. In this case, the lower part of the mouth organs changes and becomes suitable for collecting nectar and pollen.

Important! Minke whales use their jaws to gather building materials for their nest, prey on insects, and break down food to feed their offspring.


The complex device of the organs of vision allows the wasps to expand the viewing angle to 180 degrees. In addition to 2 large, bulging eyes, insects have 3 more microscopic eyes located in an equilateral triangle between the main organs of vision.

Eyes consist of microscopic facets, each of which is responsible for a part of visual information. As a result of this structure, the eyes of the wasps see an image in the form of a mosaic, which consists of a huge number of small pieces. Insects are sensitive to light, able to distinguish images in the range up to 300 Hz. For example, in humans, such a range does not exceed 50 Hz.

The main eyes are located in special recesses and reinforced with round cuticles, characterized by complete immobility.

Interesting! Additional eyes, located in the center of the head, have a pupil, resemble human ones in structure and appearance.


Above the eyes of minke whales there are long antennae in the form of thin bundles or stalks. They consist of many cranked compartments fastened together. Such compartments are called segments, and their number can reach 60 on each antenna, which is one of the sense organs of insects. It is with the help of such antennas that wasps receive basic information about the world around them.

Legs and paws

The limbs of minke whales are characterized by a complex structure. Insects have 3 pairs of legs, consisting of a coxa, femur, tibia and legs with 5 segments. The legs of insects are adapted for movement on any surface. Some varieties of minke whales have special organs on their lower limbs for collecting pollen.


The thoracic section of striped predators also consists of many segments tightly fastened together. The front and part of the thoracic region are poorly developed, the main load falls on the middle of the chest.


The basin, or wasp waist, helps the insect fold its body in half. This feature is necessary for minke whales in the process of hunting and obtaining building materials for arranging a nest.


The abdominal part of the body consists of 6 or 8 segments tightly fastened together. The back of the abdomen passes into the sting, which is the main reproductive organ of insects. It is in it that the eggs are fertilized for future clutches and there is a gland that produces a toxic substance.


The wings are membranous, mostly transparent in color. Along the edges of the wings are microscopic hooks that hold their surface together during flight. The front pair is larger than the hind wings. At rest, they fold along the body of insects.

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