Which hive to choose for a beginner beekeeper: types and which one is better to use

Which hive to choose for a beginner beekeeper: types and which one is better to use

To breed bees, you will need to create special houses. Today, many types of hives are on sale, which are characterized by different shapes, design features and sizes. Therefore, many are interested in which hive a novice beekeeper should choose. To choose the right option, you should take into account a number of criteria.

Types of hives and their purpose

Depending on the design features, bee houses have the following varieties:

  • collapsible;
  • whole.

Modern beehives usually have a collapsible structure. Previously, honeycombs in them were attached to rulers. However, after some time, these types of hives were replaced by frame structures. In one house there may be several frames with honeycombs. However, their number can change. One-piece structures are usually not used, as they are not very convenient.

Depending on the direction, the hives are:

  1. Horizontal - also called recumbent. Their structure includes one body, which can be expanded in different directions. The number of frames can be easily changed, but the design is too heavy and cumbersome.
  2. Vertical - they are called standing. The size of such houses changes due to the addition of upper tiers. The design is light and mobile.
  3. Combined - combine all the advantages of vertical and horizontal hives. In such hives, several sections are used, which are divided by a partition. Thanks to this, it is possible to change the dimensions in any direction.

When choosing the type of hive, it is important to take into account the physical capabilities of the beekeeper. Of great importance is also the fact how often he will visit the apiary. Another significant parameter is the breed of bees.

Selection criteria

When choosing a hive design, it is recommended to focus on the following criteria:

  1. Location. If the region is not characterized by excellent honey potential, it is recommended to give preference to a single-hull design. For areas with consistently high rates, sunbeds or double-hued beehives are suitable.
  2. Climate and external factors. If there are frosts in the region in spring and autumn, it is worth using double-walled hives. In this case, it is permissible to leave them outside for the winter.
  3. Features of the apiary. If the economy is nomadic, it is worth giving preference to a lightweight design. For a stationary apiary, more bulky models are suitable.

Best beehives for beginners

Today there are many popular hive designs that beginners can use.


Many beekeepers are sure that this hive is considered the most convenient. Such structures may include 16 recliners and 20-24 frames. At the stage of development of the bee colony, the nest can be expanded. To do this, you need to install honeycombs on the side. The size of the nest is regulated by a demarcation board.

In spring and winter, it is permissible to keep 2 families in this design, which are separated by a partition and differ in separate entrances. On the outer side of the body there are 2 notches - from below and from above. The bottom of the evidence is non-removable. The landing board for insects is the edge of the bottom.In addition to the main elements, the structure of the structure includes lining, ceiling, removable boards. It also includes ventilation holes.

The advantages of sunbeds include the following:

  • the ability of the bee colony to build up strength by the time honey is collected;
  • no need to move the structure;
  • free access to frames;
  • swarming reduction;
  • possibility of increasing the number of cells on foundation;
  • creating layering directly in the hive;
  • possibility of keeping two families in the hive in winter.

At the same time, cons are also characteristic of sunbeds:

  • small frame height;
  • complication of maintenance when installing a magazine extension;
  • not a good spring development.

Multiple body

This design is a single-walled house, which is equipped with standard frames measuring 435x230 millimeters. The design includes the following elements:

  • three or more identical cases, each including 10 frames;
  • liner;
  • cap;
  • removable bottom.

Each building has its own notch. At the same time, an additional notch is made in the lower case from above. A multi-hull structure is considered more difficult to operate than a sunbed. Bees in such a house remain to winter in two buildings. In this case, the upper tier is filled with honey. Thanks to this, it functions as a feeder.

In the spring, after the release of bees, the queen moves to the upper tier, laying eggs there. The third case is used as a prefix for depositing honey.

The main advantages of a multi-hive hive include the following:

  • possibility of application in any methods of beekeeping;
  • easy to collect nests for wintering;
  • quick frame construction with foundation;
  • Easy to pack bee colonies for shipping.

At the same time, the design is also characterized by some disadvantages:

  • ventilation problems;
  • difficulties when working with cases in the case of high-intensity beekeeping technology;
  • lack of free space, which leads to the need to remove part of the frame - this stresses the bees;
  • difficulties in raising two families;
  • inability to control the building frame and prepare the family for swarming.


The main advantage of this design is the affordable cost. It will be possible to collect such a hive quite quickly. Even beginners can do this. The main advantages of this type of construction include:

  • good thermal insulation;
  • light weight of the dwelling even with multi-tiered assembly;
  • no risk of rotting or mold;
  • Easy to replace internals.

At the same time, the design has a number of disadvantages. These include the following:

  • need for additional fixation;
  • need to replace structures at intervals of 3-4 years.


This is an extremely simple design, which includes several square cases 30 centimeters wide.They are installed on top of each other. As a rule, 2 buildings are left for the winter. At the same time, in the summer, 2 more are added to them. There are no frames in the design, as in the natural habitats of bees. In the design, planks are nailed to two opposite walls. Bees will build honeycombs on them.

Such hives are considered simple and convenient, because they can be used even by beginners. However, many beekeepers highlight an important drawback of such a structure - high dampness. In addition, the notch is located at the very bottom, which increases the risk of damage to the bees by the Varroa mite.

Common beginner mistakes

Beekeeper beginners often make the following mistakes;

  • do not cull weak bees;
  • do not expand nests;
  • do not control the swarming process;
  • do not monitor the condition of bee colonies.

A variety of hive types are suitable for beginner beekeepers. When choosing a particular option, it is important to take into account a number of features - the climate of the area, the number of honey plants, the breed of bees.

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