Swarming bees: signs and its warning, struggle, timing and when it ends

Swarming bees: signs and its warning, struggle, timing and when it ends

Almost every beekeeper periodically encounters swarming bees. This is a rather unpleasant phenomenon in which a bee swarm separates from the brood. As a result, a new young layer is formed, which wants to function independently. This entails the loss of part of the worker bees. Because beekeepers often try to deal with swarming. To do this, you can use a variety of methods.

What is bee swarming

Swarming of bees represents the separation of a certain number of insects from the colony. As a result, a new layer is formed, which is ready to function independently.This is what leads to the fact that some of the working individuals leave the apiary. In this case, the rest of the insects in the hives may be left without a queen. The process ends with the insects having to hatch a new queen and gradually increase their strength.

On the one hand, this phenomenon is a positive process, because it leads to the division of the family and allows you to increase the number of apiaries. If the beekeeper misses the moment and fails to catch the detached insects, he will simply lose them.

Because the beekeeper needs to take into account the following points:

  • start of swarming dates;
  • skills in working with swarms;
  • prevention of swarming in the apiary;
  • the ability to catch separated bees;
  • identification of the uterus;
  • ways to encourage insects to swarm in a controlled manner when new layers are needed.

Causes and symptoms

Swarming occurs when the bees are ready to reproduce. This is considered a natural process. However, it can cause some inconvenience to the beekeeper.

Most often, swarming begins due to overpopulation. The main reasons for this include the following:

  1. Lack of space for nectar. In this case, the bees begin to accumulate it in the nest. In this case, you need to increase the number of stores.
  2. Lack of space to lay eggs. In this case, you need to remove the honeycombs and put empty frames.
  3. Lack of room for a club in the nest. The bees prefer to congregate around the queen, so the nest is usually crowded. To organize more space, you need to install slatted liners.
  4. The passage of too dense a flow of bees through the nest. The upper entrances will give the foragers access to the hive.

In order to avoid swarming during an unfavorable period, it is worth installing a sufficient number of stores in the house and providing good ventilation.

For timely detection of swarming, you should pay attention to the following signs:

  1. Bees begin to fly out less often for a bribe.
  2. Departures are made in the evenings, but for short distances. This suggests that the insects are looking for new nest sites.
  3. On the frames or walls, honey insects begin to gather in large groups. At the same time, they show anxiety and make intense noise.
  4. Worker bees begin to clean the notch and holes from propolis that has stuck to the surface. This helps the queen to go out unhindered.
  5. Young uterus makes new sounds. This is how she calls to competitors who are in sealed cells.

Swarm capture

If it was not possible to avoid the appearance of the process itself, you will have to catch bees that are trying to fly away from the apiary. For this, it is recommended to use single-hull hives or special traps in the form of boxes. Their walls need to be rubbed with dry, and frames should be set inside. To attract individuals, you can use special tools, such as "Apiroy".

Swarming control

Unwanted swarming can be de alt with in a variety of ways.

Artificial swarming

To prevent the bees from flying away from the apiary, experienced beekeepers use the method of division. This procedure helps to achieve a number of effects:

  • strengthen the bee colony after wintering;
  • make the breed better;
  • reduce the likelihood of illness in the family;
  • strengthen and increase beekeeping.

At the same time, today there are several author's methods that can prevent an undesirable phenomenon.

Shock therapy

To normalize the behavior of bees and cope with unwanted swarming, shock therapy is recommended. To do this, do the following:

  1. Shake out the entire bee colony from the frame onto a special board.
  2. Full pick up frames with honey. In this case, the hive must remain empty.
  3. The procedure is carried out for 3 days. After that, the bees begin to lay eggs in specially constructed tongues. This indicates the termination of the swarm state. At the same time, insects kill extra queens themselves and do not try to fly away.
  4. Only after this, the frames can be installed back.

Simmens method

This method helps to successfully deal with unwanted swarming. This option is perfect for hives with a superstructure. At the same time, empty frames and constructions with honeycombs must be installed in the lower part.

After that, you need to run the entire family, which was previously withdrawn, through the bottom hole. As a result, the bees will be divided into 2 categories. So, insects will appear in the hive, which will take care of the offspring. They will go upstairs. In addition, there will be individuals in the hive that build combs in the lower compartment.

Taranov method

Unwanted swarming often starts in May. To avoid this process, it is worth using the Taranov method, which helps organize artificial swarming. For its implementation, it is recommended to fumigate insects with smoke in the evening. Thanks to this, the bees will collect full goiters of honey.

After that, they need to shake off the gangway. There they will begin to swirl. After that, it is required to move the bees to the swarm and clean until morning in a dark and cool place. Then you should remove the queen cells, return the insects and load them with work.

Demari Method

To stop swarming in June, you can use the Demari technique. This method involves the use of double-hued hives. The beekeeper advises to increase the nest in parallel. Thanks to this, the mother individual will have enough space for laying eggs. At the bottom of the body you need to place a special grill that will help control the work of the uterus.

The Demari method in beekeeping has the following varieties:

  1. You need to leave a frame with brood and a mother in the hive. In this case, the remaining frames should be moved to another case. The first body must be separated from the second using a grid. Then you can add foundation and honeycomb frames.
  2. Leave the queen on the combs, and distribute the young bees to other buildings.
  3. Remove printed brood. In this case, the queen with open brood should be left in the hive.

Kostylev's method

To avoid swarming, you can use the Kostylev method. To do this, insects need to be transferred to the gangway in the evening away from the hive. Queen cells need to be cut off, and the brood needs to be temporarily moved in a non-swarm system. From the hive, you need to take the honey frames and add printed and fodder frames instead. In the morning, the open brood and gangway must be returned to their place. In this case, the bees will begin to deal with larvae and replenish honey.

Measures to prevent swarming and its negative consequences

It is impossible to completely prevent the occurrence of instinct. Therefore, beekeepers need to be able to properly use swarm energy. For example, strong early swarms can be planted with young queens in separate evidence.The forces of such bees will be directed to building honeycombs, raising offspring and collecting honey. By the time the main bribe begins, such a swarm will grow into a strong family.

To prevent or mitigate swarming, beekeepers use the following methods:

  1. Keeping bees in larger hives. To prevent swarming, sunbeds, multi-hull structures and others are suitable. It is important to constantly load insects with various jobs - collecting bribes, breeding brood, construction.
  2. Moving to different places of honey collection.
  3. Formation of layers from families of free young bees. This is done in regions with a late main bribe.
  4. The presence in colonies of exceptionally young productive queens that can maintain a high rate of development of the bee colony.
  5. Culling colonies prone to swarming.
  6. Reject breeds that tend to swarm.
  7. Using swarm traps. They allow you to return the flying insects.

Swarming of bees is considered a natural process that has a number of features. However, sometimes it is undesirable. To cope with the problem, special methods of artificial swarming can be used.

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