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Decorative spruce: varieties and varieties, what are the sizes and shapes, application in landscape design

Decorative spruce: varieties and varieties, what are the sizes and shapes, application in landscape design

Spruce is a showy evergreen that adds a unique charm to any planting. Thorny trees often become the main focus of the composition and make the site more comfortable. There are quite a few varieties of such cultures, which differ in many ways. At the same time, decorative fir trees are most often used in landscape design.

Variety of varieties

More than 20 varieties of fir trees are used in the design of parks. When landscaping summer cottages, as a rule, the following types are used:

  1. Typical tree - has a pyramidal shape. It is characterized by a cushion-shaped crown. Based on this culture, more than 50 garden forms have been created. Among them there are medium-sized trees, the height of which is no more than 3 meters. There are also dwarf crops, the maximum height of which does not exceed 1.2 meters.
  2. Prickly spruce - the name is due to the fact that the plant has very sharp needles. Culture has 70 forms. Most of them are tall trees that reach 40 meters. There are also dwarf varieties no larger than 2 meters in size.
  3. Gray spruce - its name is due to the unusual color of the needles. It has a smoky blue tint. In total, there are more than 20 varieties of culture. Tall plants resemble pyramids, dwarf plants have a spherical shape.

Dwarf spruces

This variety includes plants whose size in adulthood is much smaller than the original mother culture.So, in natural conditions, the common spruce Picea abies reaches a height of 50 meters. The ornamental variety of this culture is known as Picea abies Nidiformis. Its height does not exceed 2-3 meters.

The key advantage of dwarf plants is the minimum growth of young branches. In a year they increase by a maximum of 10-15 centimeters. Of the modern dwarf varieties, the most popular are conifers with a spherical or nest-shaped crown.

For decorating rocky gardens or small borders, use Nidiformis dwarf spruce. An adult plant does not exceed 40 centimeters in height. At the same time, the trees form a sprawling crown with a diameter of up to 1 meter.

Little Gem variety is considered to be no less attractive plant. The shoots of this plant depart from the central part of the crown and form a hemispherical pillow. The tree looks very beautiful when grown in the form of a standard form. However, it is recommended to plant it in a floor pot.

Will's Zwerg dwarf spruce has a beautiful, dense, narrow-conical crown. The plant has beautiful milky shoots with pale green needles. This evergreen shrub fits perfectly into landscape compositions and can be used to decorate small areas. It can be used in group compositions or as a soloist.

Glauka Globoza spruce has excellent decorative properties. This dwarf culture is characterized by the absence of a pronounced trunk. It has spreading branches, which are covered with many silver-blue needles. This spruce is often used to decorate city parks.

Mid-sized varieties

When decorating summer cottages, medium-sized plants are also often used, the height of which does not exceed 15 meters. Spruces with soft spreading crowns allow you to create a shady area for relaxation.

They are best placed alone - in the central part of the green lawn or against the background of the wall of the building.The crown of such spruces usually has a clear shape. Shrubs and flowers will not grow in the shade. To get a coherent composition, it is recommended to decorate the site with large white boulders.

One of the most common types of conifers is blue spruce. Landscape designers appreciate this plant for its undemanding care. They can be planted near wooden buildings and along garden paths. It is important to bear in mind that this plant does not withstand temperature fluctuations. It is recommended to grow it only in temperate climates.

One of the most popular representatives of this species is Picea pungens Blue Diamond spruce. The plant has a tall thin trunk and a neat conical crown. It is often used to decorate mixed mixborders.

Weeping spruce varieties help to diversify the collection. Such plants tend to aquatic environment. Therefore, they can be safely placed near water bodies. The maximum size of mature trees reaches 10-15 meters. At the same time, their width is 2-3 meters.

Serbian spruce Glauka Pendula has excellent decorative properties. It has flexible thin shoots. The use of this plant allows you to implement non-standard solutions when creating garden compositions.

Piccolo spruce is considered one of the most elegant varieties. This plant is characterized by rich emerald green needles, which have a slight bluish color. This culture looks great in group plantings.

Maigold spruce looks great against the background of green plants. It looks great when used as a tapeworm. Young shoots have a creamy yellow color and look very impressive. As they develop, they change their hue, becoming bluish-green. The tree reaches a height of 6 meters and has a pyramidal shape.

Combinations of conifers

It is permissible to use spruce trees of various types and varieties to decorate a dacha. This allows you to get a more original and picturesque composition. Tall conifers fit well into the composition as tapeworms. More compact plants can be combined with other plantings.

When designing a site, it is recommended to consider the following features:

  1. Design should not be too colorful. When creating a composition of three coniferous plants, it is worth using 2 colors. When compiling an ensemble of 5 evergreens, it is recommended to take 3 colors. When implementing a multi-level composition of 20-30 plants, the element should be placed in groups. At the same time, they need to be selected by shades.
  2. When composing a composition, it is important to place accents correctly. Low plants should be placed in the foreground, medium plants in the background.
  3. In order not to get too dense plantings, you should equip a regular or Mauritanian lawn in the trunk circle. Dark green needles will help draw attention to the beauty of flowering bushes.
  4. Shrubs that have an unusual leaf color will be a good addition to conifers. It can be mock orange, weigela or barberry.

How to plant a spruce

To plant a spruce, you need to do the following:

  1. Make a round hole and fill it with drainage.
  2. Fill the hole with nutrient substrate and pour plenty of water.
  3. Carefully pull the seedling out of the container and immerse it in the hole.
  4. Align the barrel.
  5. Fill voids with soil mixture.
  6. Fill the hole with water. A minimum of 10 liters of liquid is required per plant.
  7. Make a small depression near the trunk for subsequent watering.
  8. Cover the trunk circle with mulch. For this, it is permissible to use covering materials, pebbles, gravel and crushed bricks.

It is important to consider that the culture has a superficial location of the root system. Therefore, when planting, you should not compact the soil at a distance of 1 meter from the tree.

How to care

Caring for Norway spruce is easy. It does not require much time and effort. The plant does not need to be transplanted or cut. In the summer, the tree has enough natural rainfall. However, in particular heat, it is recommended to water the culture at least once a week. At the same time, it is worth spraying with water and the crown.

After wetting the soil, a dry crust may appear on the surface. In this case, the soil must be carefully loosened. During the first 2 years, it is important to protect the ephedra from a strong drop in temperature. To do this, at the end of autumn, the trunk circle needs to be covered with mulching material.

In the spring there is a risk of sun damage to the crop. This is fraught with the appearance of burns. It will be possible to notice the appearance of problems by the brown color of the needles. To avoid damage, experienced gardeners advise wrapping the spruce trunk in a special material with the onset of spring. It should scatter light and at the same time let air through.

When growing coniferous plants, there is a risk of encountering infectious pathologies. To avoid negative consequences, it is important to identify diseases in time and take appropriate measures. Spruces are more prone to such pathologies:

  1. Rust - appears as an orange bloom on the branches. In this case, the needles become yellow and crumble. Tools such as Vectra and Gliocladin will help to cope with the problem.
  2. Schütte - this disease is associated with infection by fungi. The needles are covered with a white bloom, acquire a dark color and crumble. If you do not bring the situation to extremes, the plant can be cured. First, it needs to be sprinkled with a solution of copper sulfate, and then treated with Trichodermin. You can also use Alirin-B.


Decorative fir trees are often used in landscape design.Dwarf plants with pyramidal or sprawling needles of different shades look beautiful on the slopes of streams and alpine hills. Small trees go well with ornamental shrubs, ground cover crops and perennial flowers. Spruces look no less successful with erics and heathers.

Because coniferous trees have different shapes and shades, they allow you to create a rocky landscape corner that will remain decorative throughout the year. Spruce is easy to trim. Therefore, it can be given an original shape and used to grow hedges measuring 1.5-3 meters.

In landscape design, spruces can be used in any form - as a single crop and as a group planting. Plants with flowering shrubs and herbaceous crops look no less successful. A tree planted as a tapeworm looks especially good against the backdrop of an emerald lawn.

Medium-sized crops that are grown as a dominant plant can be placed near the house. This allows you to create a visual counterbalance to the structure of the building. In winter, spruce can be dressed up, which will help create the atmosphere of the New Year holidays.

The healing properties of spruce are no less in demand. At the same time, Norway spruce occupies a leading position in terms of the content of valuable components. Medicinal properties are characteristic of needles, young twigs and cones of the plant. They contain a lot of essential oils, tannins, resins and vitamins. Also, plant elements contain a large amount of phytoncides and trace elements.

Spruce decoctions and infusions are used to treat various inflammations of the respiratory organs and urinary tract. They can also be used to combat sinusitis and other pathologies in the nasopharynx. Baths from buds and spruce branches are used for dermatological pathologies, arthrosis, arthritis. They are also useful in the development of gout.

Fresh spruce buds can be used as a vitamin tea. It is important to consider that this remedy is contraindicated in gastric ulcer.To make the simplest infusion, you need to grind 40 grams of needles, add 250 milliliters of boiling water and cook for 20 minutes. After that, the remedy needs to be insisted. The finished product should be drunk during the day. It will help replenish vitamin C in the body.

Spruce needles contain a lot of phosphorus, potassium, iron and vitamins. It contains a large amount of ascorbic acid and carotene. Due to this, the composition is perfect for the manufacture of prophylactic agents for periodontal disease. The substance is also used to produce coniferous bath extracts.

Spruce essential oil is used to make camphor. This substance is of great benefit in cardiac pathologies. Inhalations using the essential oil of pine needles help to cope with catarrhal lesions of the bronchi and throat.

Spruce is considered a very useful plant in terms of ecology. Needles perform filtering functions in air gas exchange. In its wax coating, particles of dust and harmful microorganisms settle. This helps to purify the air.

In addition, the substances synthesized by coniferous species have a positive effect on the work of the body, improve respiratory functions and normalize blood circulation. In addition, they have a good effect on the mental state of a person.

Vytoncides, which are produced by the needles of the plant, purify the air even in the most polluted places. At the same time, spruce itself normally perceives such growing conditions.

Decorative spruces are considered to be fairly common and popular plants that are often used in landscape design. It is important to choose the right culture and provide it with quality care. When compiling garden compositions, you should focus on the recommendations of experts in this field. Only in this case will it be possible to obtain a harmonious ensemble.

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