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Norway spruce: what it looks like, description and characteristics of the tree, reproduction

Norway spruce: what it looks like, description and characteristics of the tree, reproduction

Common spruce is a fairly common plant that serves as a worthy decoration for a suburban area. This culture is often used in landscape design. Today, more than a hundred garden varieties of spruces are known, which helps every gardener to choose the right option. In order for the plant to have the desired decorative effect, it is necessary to strictly follow the rules for planting.

What kind of tree is this

According to the description, Norway spruce is an evergreen plant from the Pine family. It is characterized by a wide pyramidal crown with a pointed top.Mature trees reach a height of 30-50 meters and have a width of 6-8 meters. The branches are directed in different directions or droop. At the same time, their tips rise beautifully.

Spruce is characterized by shiny needles of a rich green hue. It has 4 sides and is 2.5 cm long. Spruce flowering begins in spring. This happens at the age of 25. In this case, the tree is covered with male and female cones. Men's are distinguished by a red-yellow hue and have a length of about 2 centimeters. Female cones are characterized by an elongated shape and reach a length of 15 centimeters.

Spruce is characterized by a fairly long life expectancy. It can be 250-300 years. The number of lived years is calculated by the number of tiers of the crown. Each of them is added once a year. It takes 3-4 years to form the first tier.

Scotch spruce grows about 50 centimeters in height per year.During the first 10 years, the culture is characterized by very slow development and growth of roots. After that, the plant begins to grow faster. The root system is rather weak, because trees often suffer from windbreaks. When planting a crop, it is important to take this feature into account and give preference to places protected from the wind.

Varieties of varieties

Common spruce looks different - it all depends on its variety. The most common types of such plants include the following:

  1. Nidiformis - is a dwarf subspecies of Norway spruce. It is a compact plant that is often used in small gardens. It resembles a shrub and has an unusual flat-round crown of high density. The variety has a high degree of resistance to frost and is able to withstand temperatures down to -40 degrees.The culture is undemanding to the composition of the soil, but grows best in fresh, moist soil.
  2. Akrokona - is one of the most picturesque varieties, which has been known since the end of the nineteenth century. The plant is characterized by an irregular columnar shape of the crown and arched hanging branches. Adult culture reaches a height of 3 meters. The width of the crown has the same dimensions. Also, spruce is distinguished by a short dark green crown, which keeps on the branches for 12 years.
  3. Inverse - is one of the most interesting varieties of the so-called weeping spruce. The tree has a narrow crown and drooping branches. The culture is grown as a slow-growing shrub on a support or grafted onto a tall stem. Hanging branches are distinguished by a tight fit to the trunk. Therefore, even in adult crops, the crown in diameter does not exceed 2.5 meters.
  4. Wills Zwerg is a low-growing variety that is characterized by slow growth.By the age of 30, it grows up to 2 meters. At the same time, the width of an adult plant does not exceed 1 meter. Spruce is characterized by a beautiful dense crown, which looks very effective at the initial stage of shoot development. They have a yellow-orange color and contrast with the dark green needles of the branches. The variety is resistant to frost. The plant is able to withstand temperatures down to -40 degrees. It is considered very light-loving, but it can also develop in the shade.
  5. Little Gem is one of the smallest plants and is slow growing. It is characterized by a cushion-shaped dense crown and short branches. The plant has a thin and delicate crown of a dark green hue. By the age of 10, spruce grows only 20 centimeters. The maximum height is 50 centimeters.


Under natural conditions, Norway spruce is found in the north-east of Europe. It also grows in the Carpathians and the Alps.In addition, culture can be found in the mountainous regions of the Balkan Peninsula. In the Siberian taiga, spruce grows together with hardwoods and pines. A small number of trees with dark green needles are found in the Pyrenees, North America and the British Isles.

Fit features

In European countries, the planting of Norway spruce, which grows in a container, can be carried out from early spring to late autumn. Coniferous culture takes root especially well in autumn. In this case, the landing recess must be made larger than the volume of the container. When planting several crops, the distance between them should be approximately 2 meters.

When moving a plant with a clod of soil into a hole, it is recommended to fill voids with loose garden soil and compost. It is also permissible to use biohumus for this purpose. As a top dressing, it is worth using nitroammophoska.It is not recommended to deepen the root collar. It should be flush with the ground surface. A planted tree needs abundant watering. In this case, it takes root better.

Care Requirements

In order for the cultivation of common spruce to be successful, it needs to provide quality care. However, it includes the following components:

  1. Soil selection. The culture of this species grows well in soil of moderate moisture, which has good drainage and a sufficient level of fertility. This is due to the fact that the roots of the plant are short. Slightly acidic loams are considered the most suitable option. Some varieties require slightly alkaline soil. However, in general, spruces develop well in slightly acidic and neutral soil. When growing a plant in poor sandy soil, clay and humus must be added to the composition.
  2. Sufficient level of illumination. Most varieties of spruce withstand direct sunlight well.However, in the first 2 winters, dwarf varieties are recommended to be shaded. Many varieties are shade tolerant. At the same time, a beautiful crown is formed only with a sufficient amount of sunlight.
  3. Regular watering. Under natural conditions, spruce of this species grows in moderately moist soil. When planting on the site, the plant needs to be watered. This is especially true in the first year. Moisten the soil once a week. It is worth using 10-12 liters of water per seedling. In the heat of the morning and evening, it is worth organizing a shower for eating. After 1-2 years, most spruce varieties do not require watering.
  4. Fertilization. When planting, it is recommended to use phosphorus and potassium. It is also useful to use sawdust of coniferous species. In this case, the use of manure or fresh compost is prohibited. It is also not recommended to make nitrogen substances and ash. When growing spruce in fertile soil during the first 2-3 years, it can not be fed. Subsequently, special dressings are introduced into the trunk circle.If the needles turn yellow and fall off, in the first year it is worth spraying the crown with Epin or Ferrovit.


Spruce of this species reproduces in different ways:

  1. Seeds - in this case, the varietal characteristics of the crop are not preserved. However, this method is often used by people who need a large amount of planting material and have the right amount of time. It is important to use fresh seeds that have been stratified.
  2. Grafting - this method is suitable for varietal crops. With its help, it is possible to preserve the main features of the mother plant.
  3. Cuttings - this method is used to propagate varietal spruces. However, in this case, a number of important rules must be observed.

Diseases and pests

Spruce is not recommended for planting after nightshade crops. They suffer from fungal infections that can affect the coniferous plant. With the development of the disease, the shoots become brown and dry. In this case, fungicides are required.

Also, the culture often suffers from pest attacks. Parasite larvae often eat young needles. Insecticides help to cope with pests.


Spruce is often used to create various compositions. Dwarf varieties are usually combined with ferns and ground cover crops. They are also used to decorate alpine slides and rockeries. In addition, spruces go well with herbaceous crops.

Spruce is a fairly popular plant that is often used in landscape design. In order for the culture to remain decorative for as long as possible, it must be properly looked after.

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