Question answer

Canadian spruce: description of an ornamental tree, planting and care, what it looks like

Canadian spruce: description of an ornamental tree, planting and care, what it looks like

Canadian spruce is often known to gardeners as gray or white. This is due to the external features of the culture. The underside of its needles has a bluish-white color. The most common variety of Canadian spruce is Konika. At the same time, many other varieties can be grown under the conditions of the Russian climate. To get a strong and he althy plant, it needs to provide quality care.


Canadian blue spruce is a fairly large plant that can grow up to 20-30 meters under natural conditions. However, such tall trees are not used to decorate park alleys or private farms.In such cases, dwarf plants are used, which reach a length of 1-1.5 meters. Sometimes they grow up to 4 meters.

The tree has a dense conical crown. Its branches are covered with thin and soft needles, which are distinguished by their frequent arrangement and slightly curved shape. In young trees, the shoots are directed upwards, while in adults they are lowered down. A characteristic feature of the plant is the blue-green color. If you grind the needles, you can feel a rather sharp smell, which is similar to the aroma of blackcurrant.

Also, spruce is distinguished by a taproot, weakly expressed root. Its root system is located quite close to the soil surface. The tree grows 3-4 centimeters per year. Its growth continues for 10-15 years. In the following years, the development of culture slows down. The cones are ovoid in shape. In length, they reach 3-6 centimeters. Seeds are 2-3 mm long and light brown in color.Cones ripen in early autumn.


Canadian spruce is characterized by quite a few varieties, each of which has certain characteristics:

  1. Daisy White. The shape of the plant resembles Konika. It is characterized by soft needles of a bright green color. At the same time, spruce becomes especially decorative when new growths appear. This occurs at the end of May or beginning of June. At first they have a yellow-white color, after which they turn green. In the spring, during the appearance of the first growth, the needles burn. The second summer growth is usually green. The culture is slow growing. By the age of 10, she grows to 80 centimeters.
  2. Alberta Globe. This variety is a coniferous evergreen plant, which is distinguished by a spherical shape. It is considered a mutation of Konika. The tree is slow growing. An adult plant reaches a height of 1 meter and has the same diameter.The culture is distinguished by dense needles. At first it has a greenish-yellow color, and then becomes bright green.
  3. Sanders Blue. This is an ornamental culture that has a conical crown. Needles are characterized by a bright blue color. The plant is considered a real dwarf. By the age of 10, it grows to a maximum of 70 centimeters. The culture is distinguished by thin and short needles, which provide spruce with a silver-blue color.
  4. Echinoformis. This dwarf variety appeared in the middle of the last century in France. It is characterized by a spherical crown and slow development. Growth usually does not exceed 2 centimeters per year. In this case, the plants are covered with small greenish-blue needles and short shoots. The spherical shape is formed by branches that stick out in different directions.
  5. Rainbows End. This plant has a cone shape and slow growth. By the age of 10, the plant reaches a maximum of 1 meter. During the year, the tree gives 2 increments. In spring, the needles are distinguished by a green color, and in summer they are bright yellow. This variety is characterized by short soft needles.
  6. Blue Planet. This variety is considered little known. However, it is characterized by pronounced decorative properties. The culture is small and bushy. In adulthood, it reaches 50-60 centimeters. In this case, the diameter of the crown is 80-100 centimeters. The needles of the plant are small and bluish-green in color.

Zuckerhat. This is an ornamental variety of gray Canadian spruce. The plant has a dense crown of bright green color. Culture is characterized by slow development. For 1 year, the plant grows by about 5 centimeters. An adult tree reaches a height of 1.5 meters. The diameter of the crown is 80 centimeters


Canadian spruce is recommended to be planted in acidic and slightly acidic soil. The plant tolerates sandy soil well. At the same time, it is important for the plant to find a site that is characterized by a deep occurrence of groundwater. A hole for planting must be dug in advance.In diameter, it should be at least 60 centimeters, and in depth - 70. Equally important is the presence of drainage measuring 20 centimeters.

Before planting, the seedling of the crop should be soaked in Kornevin's solution so that it develops better. This should be done for 6 hours. For planting a plant, you need to use a special substrate. It must be made on the basis of turf and humus. It is also necessary to add 150 grams of nitroammophoska to the composition. To improve the structure of the soil, you need to add high-moor peat to the composition. A couple of weeks before planting, the recess needs to be filled with 2/3 of the substrate, poured and left in this form.

Imported seedlings must be purchased from trusted suppliers. In this case, it is worth paying attention to the roots of plants. It is important that spruce is sold in burlap filled with moist substrate.

Planting spruce in the southern regions is required from October to the end of February. In the north, this should be done in August. Seedlings, which are sold in containers, take root well.However, it is better not to plant the plant in the heat. For culture, it is recommended to choose a shady place and water it before frost.

Rules of care

Growing Canadian spruce is easy. However, in order to preserve the decorative properties of the plant, it needs to provide high-quality care. In the first 3-4 years after planting, you need to properly prepare the plants for winter. This will help protect against sunburn.

In order to achieve the desired results, a wooden frame must be installed on the south side of the tree. Burlap, non-woven fabric or agro mesh should be pulled over it. You can also tie the plant with spruce branches. It is important to take into account that covering materials should not come into contact with needles.

In addition, when growing Canadian spruce, the following features must be taken into account:

  1. Choose the right soil.A plant of this variety needs loamy soil, which contains a lot of humus. Poor and dry soil needs to be enriched. Clay is added to dry soil. With excessive moisture, drainage materials are used. If the earth is alkaline, acidifying fertilizing is required.
  2. Provide adequate lighting. Only in this case, the Canadian spruce will look as decorative as possible. It is important to bear in mind that the bright sun in spring and winter leads to burns. Winter protection helps to avoid this.
  3. Properly water the plant. Spruce has a superficial root system that needs systematic but moderate watering. In autumn, it is required to perform a full-fledged moisture-charging irrigation. Canadian spruce perfectly perceives dousing with water. In the summer, this should be done once a week. So that the soil does not dry out, it needs to be covered with a mulch layer 7-10 centimeters thick.
  4. Apply fertilizer.The use of fertilizing depends on the degree of soil fertility. Well-cultivated soil with a high humus content does not need top dressing. When planting a plant in fertile soil, it is enough to add a bucket of mature compost to it. In the spring, crops affected by sunburn are recommended to be fed with special preparations for conifers. To restore the crown faster, it is recommended to carry out complex spraying with Epin and Ferrovit.


Canadian spruce is recommended to be propagated by cuttings. Material for planting is required to be harvested in late March or early April. This should be done on cloudy days. Good results can be achieved when harvesting cuttings in the first half of June. It is important that the branch is 7-10 centimeters long and has a heel.

After cutting, the cuttings must be placed in a solution of the root formation stimulator "Heteroauxin". In this case, only the heel and 1 centimeter of the lower part of the handle should be in the liquid.

Prepared cuttings are required to be planted in individual pots, deepening at an angle of 30 degrees by 2-3 centimeters. The soil should be light and well-drained. Pots should be covered with a glass jar.

It takes 6-12 months for a culture to take root. At this time, it is necessary to properly care for planting material. To do this, once a day it is worth airing shelters and watering the soil in time. It is best to pour water into trays. 2 times a month to moisten the seedlings, it is worth using a solution of "Kornevin" or "Heteroauxin".

In order for the cuttings to grow a little, they need to be planted in a school. After 1-2 years, plants are recommended to be planted on a permanent site.

Diseases and pests

The main diseases that Canadian spruce suffers from include the following:

  1. Schütte - This disease is also called brown snow mold. It manifests itself in the spring after the snow melts and the twigs are exposed. The causative agents of the disease actively develop on branches covered with snow. It is possible to get rid of the pathology with the help of "Foreshortening" or "Homa".
  2. Rust - also called spruce spinner. The causative agent of the pathology is a pathogenic fungus, which can be easily identified by small orange swellings on the bark. Infected crops turn yellow over time and lose their needles. As a result, the plant does not look very attractive. To cope with the pathology, you need to cut off the damaged fragments in a timely manner and burn them with fallen needles. Infected plants must be treated with Hom or Rakurs.
  3. Tracheomycosis - manifests itself in the form of a reddish coating on the needles. It quickly acquires a brown color and crumbles. Pathology cannot be cured. This is due to the fact that pathogenic fungi affect the entire root system. At the same time, it is important to dig up and burn the affected culture in time so that the disease is not transmitted to other conifers. "Fundazol" is used to disinfect the soil.

At the same time, Canadian spruce not only suffers from diseases, but is also attacked by pests. Common parasites that cause crop damage include the following:

  1. Spruce false shield - when a tree is damaged by these pests, a sticky coating remains on the bark and needles, which provokes the fall of brown needles and deformation of the shoots. Systemic remedies help protect plants from this parasite - in particular, "Confidor" and "Aktara". The second preparation should be sprinkled not only with spruce, but also with the ground around.
  2. Spruce spider mite - if the plant is damaged by these parasites, small yellow spots form on the needles, which envelop the affected branches with cobwebs and cause the needles to fall off. During the season, ticks give up to 5 generations of offspring. Therefore, plants should be sprayed at least 5 times. It is best to do this at the end of summer. For this, it is permissible to use such means as Antiklesch, Actellik, Fitoverm.
  3. Spruce sawfly - these parasites infect trees with larvae and eat needles. In this case, the needles become brown in color and crumble. "Pinocide" copes with parasites most effectively. It can be used for crown spraying and watering near-stem circles.


You can plant a tree on the site in order to decorate it. This culture is often used in landscape design.

Role in landscape design

Canadian spruce has excellent decorative properties. Young trees go well with other cultures and are used to decorate alleys, rock gardens, and flower beds. Low-growing plants look good on terraces. They look best when paired with flowers.

Interesting facts

Canadian spruce is considered a very interesting plant:

  1. Under natural conditions, the tree grows up to 20-30 meters in height.
  2. All types of such firs are considered centenarians. They can last up to 500 years.
  3. Cones on trees appear once every 10 years. They have a beautiful elongated shape.
  4. The needles are small but quite prickly.
  5. In case of strong overheating, the needles change their color.

Canadian spruce is a beautiful ornamental culture that can decorate any site. For a tree to grow successfully, it needs adequate care.

This page in other languages: