Question answer

Mountain pine: description, varieties and species, planting and care, how to propagate a tree

Mountain pine: description, varieties and species, planting and care, how to propagate a tree

Mountain pine is one of the most popular types of conifer, which is appreciated by many gardeners and landscape designers. This is due to the compact size of the culture and high decorative properties. The plant retains a rich green color throughout the year and has a pleasant aroma. In order for the culture to remain decorative, it needs to be properly looked after.

Detailed description

This type of pine is more common in the north and south of Europe. The culture is characterized by a spherical shape. Under natural conditions, the plant is presented in the form of a tree, while in garden plots it is usually grown as a shrub.The height of the crop can reach 8 meters, while the size of the bush usually does not exceed 4.5 meters.

The plant is characterized by beautiful green needles that form small bunches. Their life expectancy is approximately 5 years. The culture is distinguished by branched and superficial roots. Mature plants are covered with small cones. They are characterized by a brown color and reach a length of 4-5 centimeters.

Despite the fact that there are many types of mountain pines with certain characteristics, it is worth highlighting the universal characteristics:

  • freeze and drought resistance;
  • wind resistant;
  • undemanding to the composition of the soil;
  • high branch strength;
  • significant life expectancy - it can reach up to 1000 years;
  • resistance to parasite attacks;
  • resistance to air pollution;
  • cropping portability.

The plant has excellent decorative properties. Because of this, it is often used in landscape design. Culture can be used to decorate alpine slides and rockeries. It is used as a tapeworm or combined with other plants.

Popular varieties

Today there are many types of mountain pines, each of which has certain characteristics.


This variety has an unusual spherical crown. It is characterized by very slow growth. By the age of 10, the size of the tree is no more than 70 centimeters in height and 50 centimeters in diameter. Mature plants do not exceed 1.5 meters in height. Moreover, their diameter can be 1.2 meters.

This variety is characterized by dark green needles. Another feature is considered high resistance to frost. Pine is able to tolerate temperatures down to -35 degrees.

Pinus mugo gnom

This variety is medium in size. In height, it reaches 2.5 meters, and in diameter - 1.5-2. A young culture usually grows first in breadth, after which it begins to stretch in height. It is characterized by dark green needles and slow development. The culture is able to withstand temperatures as low as -40 degrees.

Winter gold

This variety is considered dwarf. It grows as a spherical shrub. A distinctive feature of the plant is the change in the color of the needles depending on the season. In spring and summer, the needles are green, and in autumn they turn yellow-brown. The bush reaches a height of about 50 centimeters, and its diameter is 1 meter.

Pinus Columnaris

This variety of mountain pine is often used in landscape design. It goes well with rocks and stones. The height of the plant can reach 2 meters, and the diameter - 2.5. The needles are distinguished by pointed tops and a dark green color.

Pinus mugo Compact

This species is characterized by slow growth. In addition, its crown has a cushion shape. Throughout the year, the needles are characterized by a rich green color.

Pinus mugo mughus

This plant is found in the Eastern Alps. It also grows on the Balkan Peninsula. The culture is a massive shrub that can reach a height of 5 meters. The plant initially has yellow-brown buds. But as they mature, they turn brown.

Pinus mops

This dwarf variety does not exceed 1.5 meters in height. The culture is characterized by short branches with small needles, the length of which is 4.5 centimeters. The needles have a dark green color and slow development. The plant has good resistance to frost and can withstand temperatures as low as -45 degrees.

Pinus mugo pumilio

This small plant is decorated with very dense needles. The needles are distinguished by a rich green tint and high rigidity. The culture is small and does not exceed 1.5 meters in height. It is characterized by wide cone-shaped cones that appear on the branches 7 years after planting. The plant hardly tolerates very wet and dense soil. At the same time, it can be safely grown in the conditions of the city.

Pinus ophir

This ornamental variety has rich green needles. At the same time, in winter it acquires a brownish-yellow color. The crown has a rounded shape and high density. The tree is compact in size and does not exceed 2 meters in height. The culture is considered quite photophilous and is resistant to drought.


This dwarf variety has a comparatively tall trunk. At the same time, the height of its crown does not exceed 50 centimeters. The plant is often grown at home. For 1 year, it increases by a maximum of 30 millimeters. The culture can hardly withstand stagnant moisture in the roots.

Pinus mugo chaochao

This plant has dense and stiff needles that grow on branches in bunches. It is often grown in garden plots because it synthesizes phytoncides.These substances inhibit the activity of pathogenic bacteria. This variety is considered very unpretentious. However, for a comfortable development of culture, it must be planted in a well-lit area.

Correct fit

In order for the pine tree to retain its bright shade and coniferous aroma all year round, it needs to be planted correctly. A well-lit and open area is suitable for this. The composition of the soil is also important. It is advisable to give preference to drained sandy or sandy loam soil.

If the land on the site is too heavy, it is worth laying high-quality drainage on the bottom. The thickness of this layer should be 20 centimeters. In order for a young seedling to adapt to new conditions, when planting it, you must adhere to the following rules:

  1. Choose a suitable spot in the garden. A distance of at least 4 meters is required between several plants.
  2. Make small holes in the soil. Their dimensions should be 80x80 centimeters.
  3. It is good to loosen the bottom of the planting hole.
  4. For quick adaptation and good development, put compost on the bottom. It is important to consider that the thickness of such a layer should not be more than 20 centimeters.
  5. Mix top dressing with regular soil.
  6. Install the seedling in the recess and fill the voids with the prepared substrate. It is important to ensure that the root neck is flush with the ground.
  7. Make a side of the ground. Thanks to this, moisture will remain in the near-stem circle.


In order for a plant to have normal sizes, to fully develop and retain its decorative properties, it needs to provide quality care. It is important to follow these recommendations:

  1. Moisten the soil in time. In summer, this is done with an interval of 3 days, in winter - a maximum of 1 time.
  2. Apply fertilizer. Immediately after planting, it is worth feeding the mountain pine with a growth stimulator that will help it form roots. Subsequently, it is permissible to use a complex preparation.
  3. Loosen the soil and mulch the soil. Loosening cannot be considered a mandatory procedure, but many summer residents carry it out after winter.
  4. Trim the plant. Mountain pine normally tolerates a haircut. However, it is permissible to cut no more than a third of the tree at a time. The procedure is carried out 1 time per year.

Mountain firs are resistant to frost. Therefore, specific preparation of crops for winter is not required. At the same time, it is important to limit watering or refuse it altogether. Pine transplantation is allowed in March - immediately after the snow melts. In this case, it is worth using the same substrate.

Pest control

Mountain pine is resistant to parasites.However, sometimes the culture still suffers from attacks by pine scale insects. They are more likely to infect Scots pine, but the mountain variety is also under threat. These are rather small insects no larger than 2 millimeters in size. They usually settle on the underside of the needles. As a result, the affected needles become brown in color and crumble. Pine scale insects especially love trees aged 3-5 years.

It makes no sense to fight with adults. Their torso is covered with a strong shell, so the drugs do not affect them. Young individuals should be treated with Actellik. It is recommended to do this in July.

Ways to propagate a tree

Plant propagation can be done in different ways - by seeds, cuttings or grafting. The specific method should be chosen depending on the variety. The easiest way to propagate the culture is seeds. However, they can be planted in open soil or in a box. It is also allowed to use a home greenhouse.It is best to carry out planting work in the spring. It is important to consider that seeds can only be planted a couple of years after pollination.

When planting, it is recommended to observe an interval between bushes of 5 centimeters in size. After that, the container should be covered with a film. The first shoots appear after 1 month. At this stage, it is required to remove the film and establish a systematic watering of the plant. After about 1-2 years, it is recommended to plant plants in open soil.

Cuttings are considered not the most successful method for mountain pine. It takes a long time for a tree to develop roots. However, this does not always happen. If cuttings are nevertheless carried out, it is recommended to do the following:

  1. Cut cuttings from young bushes. They need to be trimmed with a piece of bark.
  2. Place the prepared cuttings in a container with water and leave for 3 days. It is also permissible to use a special solution to stimulate the development of the root system.
  3. Plant the cuttings in the prepared box at intervals of 10 centimeters.
  4. Use a greenhouse to develop roots.

Vaccination is the most complex and time-consuming method of spruce propagation. It is usually used by experienced gardeners or landscape designers. This method helps to preserve the varietal qualities of the crop.

Mountain pine is a popular plant that fits well into a variety of landscape compositions and releases phytoncides into the air. Therefore, the culture is often grown in summer cottages or used to decorate squares and parks. In order for the plant to always retain its decorative properties, it is important to carry out planting work correctly and provide it with full and high-quality care.

This page in other languages: