Making foundation: how to do it yourself at home, shape and matrix

Making foundation: how to do it yourself at home, shape and matrix

The foundation is one of the main elements for successful beekeeping. This substance is especially relevant when breeding insects for commercial purposes. It can be bought in the store ready-made. However, many beekeepers prefer to make foundation on their own. This helps save money, but requires time and effort.

What is it and what is it for?

Waxing is a wax sheet in which hexagonal indentations are made. They are needed for the accelerated construction of honeycombs by insects. The foundation is placed in a special frame, which is then placed in the hive.

The main purpose of the material is to unload the bee colony. Its use eliminates the need for insects to build a base for the comb, since the beekeeper places finished wax sheets in the hive.

Natural foundation is the basis for honeycombs. Bees use this material to store honey and breed. If this substance is not used in the hive, the insects will build honeycombs on their own. This will negatively affect the amount of honey, as construction takes a lot of time and effort from the bees.

Artificial foundation performs important functions. With its help, you can achieve the following results:

  • expand the bee nest;
  • increase family productivity of honey;
  • ensure the normal formation of the swarm with the advent of spring.

Types of foundation

Wax foundation can have different types. The material is divided into natural and artificial. Each variety has its own characteristics.


Ideally, the base of the honeycomb is made of wax. This material is considered environmentally friendly, it melts easily and leaves no residue at all. Honeycombs made from natural wax have many advantages. It is easy and comfortable to work with them, the mass is plastic and melts at a low temperature.

The main disadvantage of natural foundation is that wax is considered a very soft and plastic material. Therefore, it is important to properly store and handle it carefully. In addition, natural foundation cannot be reused.


Artificial foundation is made from special plastic. In this case, a special form or rollers can be used. You can also use a matrix. It is made of silicone.

The following advantages are typical for artificial material:

  • long service life;
  • reusable;
  • minimum effort, time and money;
  • high strength and no risk of deformation during operation;
  • possibility of self-production;
  • simplicity and ease of storage - plastic foundation does not break or bend.

In addition to the advantages, artificial foundation has the following disadvantages:

  • need for constant inspection and treatment of various parasites and diseases;
  • necessity to apply a thin layer of wax before attaching the sheet to the frame;
  • impossibility of repair in case of damage to the sheet - in this case, it has to be replaced with a new one.

Selection rules

To buy or make foundation, you need to take into account a number of parameters. These include the following:

  • material - natural wax, polypropylene or paraffin wax will do;
  • appearance - the material must be clean and transparent;
  • dimensions and weight - according to the standards, foundation can have dimensions of 400x260 millimeters and a weight of 70-80 grams or 400x207 millimeters and 56-60 grams;
  • the number and appearance of cells - they must have a hexagonal shape and a concentration of at least 10 pieces per 5.5 centimeters.

The size and number of manufactured combs are determined by the species characteristics of bees, geographical location and other parameters. For example, for Asian breeds, it is recommended to make small indentations, but there should be a lot of them. For European bees, on the contrary, it is worth making fewer recesses, but they should be large enough.

Making foundation with your own hands

The production of foundation is carried out in different ways. The easiest way is to purchase or make a matrix. If this is not possible, rollers or a press can be used at home. Sometimes this is done without rollers, but it is much more difficult.

Before carrying out work, it is worth preparing raw materials. First, the wax must be heated in a special device. This is done for at least 3 hours. The container must have protective enamel. With this procedure, it is possible to purify the source material. Then you should check its humidity. If it exceeds 2%, the capacity must be put on a slow fire and achieve the desired parameters.

To make homemade foundation, you can use the following tools:

  1. Rollers.First, the wax needs to be melted. To do this, prepare a container of suitable sizes. It is best to use a shallow container, since the thickness of the sheet should not be more than 4-5 millimeters. Dip a flat sheet into the wax. Thanks to this, it is possible to obtain a sheet of the required thickness. After that, it is recommended to pass it through the rollers and dry it. It is important to note that both rollers must be cool before starting work.
  2. Press. In this case, it is recommended to evenly pour the wax onto the bottom plate, and place the second one on top. First you need to clean the edges of the press from the remnants of wax. Then open the device and place the workpiece sheet directly on the plate under a stream of cool water. When the material hardens, it is recommended to remove and dry it. It is important to consider that before carrying out work, the press should be heated. To do this, his plates need to be held in warm water for 1 hour.

Storage Features

The foundation needs to be stored in a dry and cool place without foreign odors. It is recommended to keep it in thick paper. It is important to constantly monitor the temperature and humidity in the room. This will help prevent overheating of the plates.

Waste is considered a very important material, without which it is impossible to do. With its help, it is possible to increase the productivity of bee colonies and make them he althier. It is quite possible to make wax on your own. To do this, you should clearly follow the instructions of experienced beekeepers.

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