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Lebanese cedar: description and varieties, rules for planting and caring for a tree

Lebanese cedar: description and varieties, rules for planting and caring for a tree
Anonim

The Lebanese cedar is an evergreen tree that has a rich history. It has its roots in ancient Egypt. Currently, this variety is classified as rare plants that are practically not found in natural conditions. However, breeders have developed quite a few varieties that are suitable for growing in their own garden plots.

Appearance description

Under natural conditions, the Lebanese cedar can reach a height of 50 meters. The diameter of its trunk is 2.5 meters. However, on average, the height of trees does not exceed 25-30 meters. They have a thick, dark gray bark.

Young cedars have a conical crown, which is typical for representatives of the Pine family. From the age of 15, the shoots of the tree are placed almost horizontally. At the same time, the shape of the top becomes flat and expands, resembling a huge umbrella.

Lebanese cedar has a tetrahedral needles, which has a blue or bluish-green color. It forms bundles of 20-30 pieces. The size of the needles reaches 4 centimeters. The needles are gradually updated with an interval of 2 years. The tree synthesizes a lot of phytoncides, which are detrimental to fungi and harmful insects.

The buds of the plant are cylindrical and have a brown tint. Their width is 4-6 centimeters, and their length is 12. Inside the fruits are inedible resinous seeds, the size of which is 15-18 millimeters. They are equipped with light wings. The appearance of cones is observed only at 25 years. At the same time, the cedar bears fruit 2 times a year.

The lifespan of a culture reaches several thousand years. At the same time, the cedar is characterized by a rather slow development. The culture is considered undemanding to the composition of the soil. It easily withstands clay, sandy, well-known soils. However, the tree hardly tolerates stagnant moisture. At the same time, the cedar is not too sensitive to prolonged drought.

The plant develops well in sunlit areas. Despite its southern origin, this cedar is a frost-resistant crop that can withstand temperatures as low as -30 degrees. However, prolonged frosts are detrimental to the plant. Also, the tree does not tolerate temperature fluctuations well.

Distribution area

According to the description, Lebanese cedars in natural conditions are found in the mountainous regions of Syria, Turkey, Transcaucasia, in the north of Asia, which are inaccessible to people. They are also found in Algeria, Morocco and southern Europe.

Tree varieties

Cedar pine is considered a very popular plant. It is often used in landscape design. Thanks to the efforts of breeders, quite a few types of Lebanese cedar have been obtained that can be grown in garden plots and parks.

Sargentii

This variety originated in Japan. Its distinctive features are considered undemanding to care and planting. The culture develops well both in sandy soil and in rocky terrain. Therefore, it can be grown in the Mediterranean countries. The needles have a rich emerald color. The crown spreads along the ground, and the culture itself is a semi-dwarf variety.

The maximum height of the plant does not exceed 3 meters. At the same time, it increases literally by 0.2-0.3 millimeters per year. The roots of the tree go to a depth of 3 meters. Shady places without direct sunlight are suitable for its development.

Beacon Hill

This plant has a compact size. It grows up to 5 meters in height and has weeping branches. Due to its visual appeal, culture is quite popular among designers. The Beacon Hill variety is characterized by bright green lush needles and a beautiful golden trunk.

This variety of cedar is ubiquitous, but it is best adapted to hot climates. Its root system is covered with many small pores that can absorb and retain the maximum amount of moisture. Therefore, this plant develops well in open, well-lit areas.

Glauca

This tree is in many ways reminiscent of the standard Lebanese cedar. In height, it grows up to 50 meters, and in diameter - up to 2. For a year, the culture increases by 1-2 centimeters.The bark is dark in color with reddish undertones. As it ages, the color of the trunk changes. In young plants, the bark has a light gray tint, and darkens with age.

Fructification of the cedar of this variety begins at 6 years old. During this period, the tree is decorated with large cones that have a purple tint. Inside the fruit there is a special aromatic oil, which provides the culture with reliable protection against parasites. The Glauka variety is found in many gardens and parks. This is due to its wide distribution and fecundity.

Correct fit

To plant a Lebanese cedar, you need to choose a seedling and a suitable site. Experts advise using he althy plants that do not have cracks or rotting areas. It is best to purchase planting material from a local nursery. The best option would be seedlings with closed roots. Work should be carried out in the fall before the soil freezes.The best time to land is in October or November.

All representatives of the Pine family are considered very photophilous. They hardly perceive the effect of excess moisture. Young plants normally withstand shady places, but by the age of 16 they need more light. Therefore, Lebanese cedar seedlings should be planted in sunny areas with light loam.

It is also acceptable to place the Lebanese cedar in sandy soil. However, in this case, the tree needs more frequent watering, and in winter there is a high probability of freezing of the root system. It is important that the groundwater at the landing site lies quite deep. This will help prevent root rot and fungal infections. You should also avoid the influence of the north wind, cold air, drafts.

Lebanese cedar seedlings adapt well to loose and nutritious soil. Therefore, at least a month before planting, it is worth digging up the area on a shovel bayonet and adding any organic matter - it can be compost or humus.

After preliminary manipulations, a landing recess should be made. Its size should correspond to the roots of the Lebanese cedar. Usually gardeners advise making a hole 30% larger than the earthy clod on the roots of the plant.

The bottom of the recess should be filled with a layer of expanded clay and fertile soil. It is also required to make 3 buckets of compost or humus. Additionally, it is recommended to add a handful of wood ash and a couple of handfuls of coniferous earth. In addition, you need to use a combined top dressing for conifers.

When planting one crop, it is important to ensure that the soil within a radius of 2 meters from the planting hole has been fed and dug up. All layers in the recess must be compacted every 15 centimeters. Otherwise, there is a risk of exposing the root collar.

After using all the important elements, you need to mix the contents of the hole well with a shovel, cover it with black plastic wrap and leave for 3-4 weeks. This will help to achieve the formation of favorable microflora.

After the specified time has passed, the shelter can be removed and the rooting of the seedling can begin. When planting several cedars, it is worth keeping a distance of 8 meters between them. Dwarf varieties can be spaced 3 meters apart.

After the completion of planting, the cedar needs 3-4 weeks to adapt to new conditions. In preparation for planting, the pit often settles. In such a situation, it is required to restore its shape and dimensions. If necessary, it is permissible to add a fertile substrate to the hole. It is important that 20 centimeters remain to the top of the recess.

To plant the Lebanese cedar, it is recommended to do the following:

  1. In the central part of the hole, hammer a wooden peg to fix the young trunk.
  2. To prevent rotting of the root system, burn the edge of the wood and treat with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
  3. If the taproot is damaged, it must be cut and treated with disinfectant compounds.
  4. Before planting, it is advisable to hold the seedling in a growth stimulator for several hours. This will help saturate the plant with moisture and valuable substances.
  5. Carefully place the seedling near the peg and straighten the roots. It is important that the root neck is flush with the ground.
  6. Tie a tree trunk to a support.
  7. Fill voids near the roots with fertile soil and compact.
  8. It's good to water the cedar. For 1 plant, you should use at least 6 liters of settled water at room temperature.
  9. Cover the trunk circle with a mulch layer. To do this, you can use bark, sawdust and fallen needles.

How to care for a tree

In order for the cultivation of cedar to be successful, it is important to create suitable conditions for it. At the same time, a number of care rules must be observed.

Water and fertilize

Lebanese cedar does not tolerate increased waterlogging of the soil. In adulthood, it perfectly withstands dry weather. Young plants require special attention - especially within 2 weeks after planting. At this time, seedlings are recommended to be watered at intervals of 2-3 days. For 1 plant, it is worth using 5-6 liters of water.

When growing ornamental varieties, it is recommended to avoid drying the soil in the near-stem circle. It is important that it is moderately moist. To avoid weathering of water from the soil and to facilitate the care of the plant, it is required to cover the planting site with a mulch layer. Periodically it needs to be loosened. This will improve the aeration of the root system and activate the growth of the crop.

Culture responds well to canopy irrigation. However, this procedure should be carried out only during a prolonged drought. It should be done in the morning or evening.

To feed the ephedra, it is recommended to use products based on potassium and phosphorus.In this case, it is worth using ready-made mineral complexes. Effective drugs include "Agricola", "Kemira". They should be dissolved in water or buried in the ground before watering. It is required to fertilize the Lebanese cedar three times per season. They do it in May, July and September.

Cutting

The crown of the Lebanese cedar is formed in a natural way. Therefore, additional procedures are not required for this. An exception is the situation when a tree has 2 trunks. In such a situation, it is important to get rid of the less developed branch.

Spring and autumn are recommended for sanitary pruning. This procedure is performed while slowing down the movement of juices. In this case, you need to get rid of dry, broken and frozen shoots. After the end of the manipulation, a garden var is applied to the place of the cut.

Preparing for winter

In order for the cedar to endure the winter normally, it needs to be prepared for the cold.The breed remains viable when the temperature drops to -30 degrees. At the stage of preparation for winter, the tree must be watered abundantly. Moist soil well protects the root system from freezing. Also, peat or humus should be added to the trunk circle. The thickness of this layer is 10-15 centimeters.

Young trees need to be covered. To do this, you need to make a frame above them and fix the non-woven fabric. Polyethylene film is not recommended for this. It does not allow moisture and air to pass through. With increasing humidity and temperature, the wood begins to rot quickly.

Pest and disease control

Lebanese cedar often suffers from fungal infections. These include trunk rot and needle rust. For treatment, you can use tools such as Ordan and Abika-Peak. Landings should be sprayed with working fluid in the evening or cloudy weather. Affected branches need to be pruned. This prevents the spread of infections.

From pests, the tree may suffer from attacks by pine silkworms and bark beetles. Parasites can be identified by the presence of dense cocoons from the web. Affected trees cause deformation of the shoots and fall of the needles. To destroy parasites, insecticides such as Actellik, Lepidocide, Arrivo should be used. Treatments are repeated after 2 weeks.

Reproduction

Coniferous plants can be propagated by seeds or cuttings. When using the seed method, the varietal qualities of the crop are not preserved. Therefore, cuttings are most often used. To do this, cut off the shoots of an adult tree 10 centimeters in size. Work is carried out in the spring - during the swelling of the kidneys. The cuttings are immersed in water, adding a root growth stimulator. After that, the shoots are rooted in the greenhouse.

In order for the cuttings to take root, it is recommended to provide the following conditions:

  • high humidity;
  • regular loosening;
  • special substrate of sand, mycorrhiza and humus.

What is used for

The Lebanese cedar is listed in the International Red Book - this is due to the value of its wood. This substance has excellent decorative qualities and has a number of valuable properties.

Lebanese cedar oil contains many valuable trace elements, including unique organic acids. The use of this product helps to achieve the following effects:

  • improvement of visual functions;
  • removal of toxic substances;
  • skin rejuvenation;
  • strengthening blood vessels.

Lebanese cedar is a unique plant that has high decorative characteristics and benefits he alth. At the same time, it is important to carry out planting work correctly and provide a balanced care for the culture.

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