Vegetables

Turnip varieties: a detailed description of the TOP 25 best, useful properties

Turnip varieties: a detailed description of the TOP 25 best, useful properties
Anonim

For centuries, a vegetable planted and loved by the people is now almost forgotten: they know it only from a folk tale, and even then not everyone. Traditionally grown in Russia, various varieties of turnips, after the targeted introduction of foreign potatoes, gradually ceased to be cultivated. And earlier, steamed, boiled and raw turnips formed the basis of the diet of peasants in different provinces, remaining a nutritious and he althy product.

Turnip and its features

The turnip, a truly magical vegetable, contains vitamins, macro- and microelements. And it is very tasty in any versions:

  • raw;
  • boiled;
  • s alty;
  • marinated;
  • in cereals and roasts.

Rhizomes contain sugar, which is why they are so sweet. There are vitamins of groups B, C, E, PP, beta-carotene, compounds of potassium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, phytoncides. Protein is negligible, so the product is ideal for diet food.

Turnip will be useful for people experiencing problems with peristalsis, it has a urinary, wound healing and antiseptic effect. In terms of the content of natural dissolved sugar, turnips can successfully compete with apples, even the sweetest ones. Sometimes there is a slight bitterness, as in a radish, this is not considered a deviation from the norm.

Important. Turnip requires almost no special care when growing. In the first year, basal leaves and the future fruit develop, and in the second, the stem with inflorescences is pulled out and the seeds ripen.

According to the growing season, the culture is clearly divided into early, middle and late varieties. They differ in yield, susceptibility to frost or suitability for fruit storage, but almost all retain their characteristic, sometimes slightly bitter, sweet taste. Any type of turnip is juicy, with a moderately hard core and not very thick top layer (skin).

Some are grown exclusively for greens (top), others - as a filling for salads, vegetable stews, meat dishes.

Healing and beneficial properties of turnips

Turnip - really a royal root, Russian ginseng, endowed with excellent taste and a dozen useful properties. Not everyone knows that this root crop is successfully used to treat diseases and ailments:

  • restores and normalizes metabolism;
  • cleanses blood cells from "garbage" accumulated in them;
  • helps relieve joint pain;
  • stabilizes the activity of the stomach, intestines;
  • cope with intoxication of the body, remove toxins;
  • strengthens damaged bone tissue;
  • improves the functioning of the respiratory system (including asthma);
  • relieves stones, sand in the genitourinary system;
  • treats dermatitis and rashes;
  • relieves acute attacks of toothache, bleeding gums and prevents the destruction of enamel;
  • great for preventing colds, flu.

Turnip is a supplier of useful substances in the production of medicines, it is used in traditional medicine. Juice is a natural tonic for the face, it replaces any patented product of cosmetic concerns.For dry, needy skin, there is no better remedy.

Turnip is not just a vegetable

Turnip is a member of the cruciferous family, being a relative of cabbage, mustard, wasabi, but not at all like them in taste. The development period is divided into 2 parts: the first year and the second year. In the initial stage, the formation of a rhizome and leaves (rosettes) occurs, in the final stage, a stem with peduncles grows and seeds ripen.

Turnip has always been valued for its unpretentiousness to growing conditions: it grew on a variety of soils, from sandy loam and loam to black soil, bringing strong and juicy fruits to a person. In Russia, many varieties are grown simultaneously, with different yields, ripening rates, and fruit shapes.

No two turnips are the same color: there are yellow, white, purple, reddish, black. Most often, the lower part does not sink too deep into the ground - about two-thirds.The weight of a ripened root ranges from 10 grams to half a kilogram, special large-fruited varieties have been bred that consistently bring juicy and strong turnips.

The bitterness in taste is explained not by a defect in the species, but by a lack of watering: this is how the plant reacts to a lack of moisture. Turnip has no equal in sugar content, it also contains vitamins and microelement compounds useful for humans. If in Russia this vegetable was traditionally grown "on the roots", then exotic species that came from Asia are used as a supplier of crisp, vitamin C-rich green foliage.

Not only for food, but also for healing

Turnip is eaten raw, baked, boiled, fried. Combine with fish and meat, as well as s alt and marinate. Folk connoisseurs consider the vegetable a ready source of medicines for a wide range of diseases. It is recommended for chronic problems with the gastrointestinal tract, overweight, inflammation of the joints, asthma, urolithiasis and others.Turnip juice produces a natural tonic for the skin of the face, it also nourishes the hair, making it he althy, shiny and silky.

Sweet varieties

Varieties with high sugar content are he althy and productive. A special diet made up of sweet root crops will allow you to quickly and effectively defeat excess kilograms and centimeters, because the pulp is well absorbed by the body without adding "extra" calories.

Golden Ball

The variety got its name from the yellowish, spherical rhizomes. The flavor range is soft, delicate, with pronounced sweetish notes. In terms of ripening, it belongs to the average. Widely used in non-traditional therapies.

Snow White

Exotic Snow White comes from Japan and is an early variety. The growing season is about one and a half months. Root crops are characteristically rounded and snow-white, inside juicy, dense.Used fresh, used for cooking. Leafy greens go for salad cutting and snacks. The variety stands out for its resistance to cold and immunity to low light.

White ball

Belongs to mid-season varieties, brings turnips weighing up to half a kilogram, white, very juicy and soft, completely devoid of bitterness. The leaves contain ascorbic acid, so they are used to make salads. Like other species, grown from seeds, normal germination.

Cropping

There are separate, high-yielding varieties that are characterized by a stable yield of fruits of large mass and guaranteed quantity. Sometimes they have additional protection against low temperatures or specific taste qualities.

Snow Maiden

Belongs to typical salad varieties, ripens early and produces small strong white turnips.The only drawback is poor storage: the fruits need to be eaten as soon as possible. It is grown in open ground, under glass or film (in a greenhouse). Sowing is allowed in several separate stages, from spring to mid-summer.

Burnt sugar

An unusual variety that has nothing to do with burnt sugar. It brings together seasoned quality, fast ripening and undoubted benefits from the point of view of medicine. The root crop is specifically elongated, oblong, covered with black skin on the outside. Flesh firm and crisp, juicy Keeps well.

Grandma

When breeding the species, breeders intelligently combined high yields and a short growing season. Unpretentious, can be grown on different soil mixtures. Gives roots with golden pulp, rich sweet taste. Turnips are rich in trace elements, keep well after harvest, and are used raw and processed.

Tokyo

Non-standard, "leafy" variety, one of the fastest ripening. The rosette is formed from rounded oval leaves. Rich in vitamins, juicy greens, slightly sour. It features high moisture consumption and resistance to low temperatures.

Petrovskaya 1

An old look, used to be widespread in Russia. Sings already 2 months after sowing. The fruits are round, with a pale green top. Allows long term storage. The variety is distinguished by high yield, excellent taste.

Large-fruited

These species are characterized by strong, fairly large fruits of different colors, with good storage during the harvest period.

White Night

A type of turnip native to the Czech Republic. In terms of vegetation, mid-season. The fruits are white, about two-thirds sunk into the ground, weighing about 0.5 kilograms. The pulp inside is juicy, without characteristic hard inclusions, somewhat similar to a garden radish.

Golden Ball

Another mid-early variety, the color of the fruit is bright yellow, with a shiny skin. The weight of one turnip is up to 400 grams, the taste is delicately sweet, with a juicy core.

Russian size

The variety seems to have descended from the pages of a collection of Russian fairy tales: massive, heavy fruits weigh up to 2 kilograms. At the same time, they retain all the useful properties of ordinary turnips - sweetness, moderate hardness, juiciness, and a characteristic "turnip" flavor.

Snowball

Early variety with round, white roots. The weight of one turnip ranges from 90 to 200 grams, taste characteristics are at the level of the best specimens. Turnips are usually shallow in the ground, easy to pull out, and keep well after picking.

Early ripening

This category contains varieties of early ripening, which remain the most popular among gardeners.

Geisha

An exceptionally lettuce variety, resistant to stalk formation, with white and round fruits weighing up to 200 grams. The whole plant tolerates cold and lack of light well. The foliage is devoid of any pubescence and is an excellent option for spring vitamin salads. After the roots ripen, the turnip brings a tasty fruit with a slightly noticeable bitterness. It is stored poorly: the early turnip variety is intended for the summer period, and not for harvesting for winter storage.

Milan Rose

Quickly ripening species, also very productive. The fruits are flat, with a smooth skin and a pleasant-tasting pulp. It is considered resistant to garden diseases and pests. Seeds with good germination - already for 3-5 days sprouts hatch. The plant easily tolerates small frosts, the optimum temperature for its development is determined at 15-18 ° C. A little picky about light and watering, but tolerates poor (sandy and loamy) soils.

Grandfather

One of the early varieties: fully matures in 50 days. The shape is spherical, with a peel of 2 colors - purple and white. Turnip is suitable for eating raw, the taste is emphasized, sweet. Cooking and even s alting is allowed, the fruits contain many vitamins and minerals. Grown outdoors (not in a greenhouse).

Glasha

Matures early - a month and a half, bringing flattened white roots weighing no more than 100 grams. Thanks to this shape, the turnips are easily pulled out during harvest. The taste is excellent, the pulp is sweet and juicy. It is used in salads, for homemade pickles, boiled, steamed and stewed. Can be stored for a long time (in winter).

May Yellow

Early view with a full growing season of 75 days. The color of the inner core is fully consistent with the name - bright yellow. In the place where the corolla is attached, the leaves are slightly greenish, the rest of the fruit is white. It ripens quickly, the taste is soft, sweetish-tender.

Granddaughter

This species also belongs to the rapidly ripening species - 2 months after sowing, round, light-weight turnips appear. The skin is yellowish, smooth. Eat raw, in salads. It is allowed to save in the cellar or basement during the winter.

Mid-ripening

Mid-ripening varieties occupy an intermediate position between early and late. They do not have a very long, but not particularly fast ripening period, allowing you to collect fruits with good taste and presentation.

Dunyasha

Dunyasha produces delicious and vitamin-rich root crops that are successfully used for dietary nutrition. The period for reaching full ripeness is 70 days, the turnips are obtained size-to-size, weighing up to 200 grams each. On a cut - yellowish color, taste sweet, soft. Coarse and hard plant fibers are absent.The variety is not afraid of shade and frost, it is stable to premature flowering.

Moon

In this species, the ripening period rarely exceeds 80 days, the fruits are roundish, with a soft and thin skin. Turnips, as in the selection, are juicy and sweet, they are well stored in winter and autumn.

Suitable for eating raw, especially in winter. Cold resistant.

Nurse

Another solid "middling" that brings the crop after 3 months from the date of planting the seeds. Fruits ripen weighing up to 250 grams each, tender, with a large amount of vitamins and microelements. Great as a salad dressing supplier. Boiled, fried, stewed, baked in different forms. Successfully combined in dishes with other vegetables, fish and meat.

Gribovskaya

The turnip of the Gribovsky variety ripens within 60 days, bringing gardeners large, with a dark purple rim at the top, yellowish root crops. And it is also very tasty, well preserved, not afraid of frost.

Later

Late species include those whose ripening period is usually 90 days or more. Many of them are not inferior to the early ones in their taste characteristics, they even surpass them.

Comet

The specific elongated shape of the rhizome with a thickened part at the bottom contributed to the name. In addition, the Comet has excellent characteristics that match from fetus to fetus: weight, size and taste. The average ripening period is 80 days, the weight of one turnip is up to 120 grams.

Orbit

This variety can be recognized by its regular spherical root crops that ripen in 4 months. Turnip is large, white, the weight of one fruit reaches 500 grams. Very tasty appearance, which partly compensates for the duration of ripening. It tolerates storage in a cellar or basement during the winter.

The best varieties of turnips

Among the variety of types of useful root crops, experts identify the best in terms of taste, frost resistance, endurance, fruit size and yield, ripening time. It is also important to choose a species for the region in which it is planned to be cultivated: this will affect the specific variety and the properties required for normal cultivation (shade tolerance, need for fertilized or poor soil).

The concept of "best variety" obviously refers to a subjective assessment, because in one, specifically taken form, it is impossible to take into account all the parameters of horticultural culture, sometimes contradictory. For example, early turnip is inferior to medium (and late) in taste, but it will provide a set of vitamins to the table in the shortest possible time. And a special species grown "by the top" (for spring salads) is incorrect to compare with root crops.

Important. The best variety will be the one that, under specific conditions, will allow you to get a guaranteed, stable harvest.

For the Urals

In the Ural region, varieties are cultivated without problems: Burnt sugar, Petrovskaya 1, Gribovskaya local, May yellow green-headed, Milan white red-headed. Type Burnt sugar is easy to distinguish by a specific elongated shape (reminiscent of a plump black sausage). Outside, the turnip is covered with a dark skin, inside - white and sweet, appetizingly crunchy core.

The variety has a high yield and good keeping quality. From its pulp you can cook delicious salads, use for baking. The sown seeds germinate in 3-5 days, the plant itself easily tolerates short-term cooling down to +4 °C. Loves the light, fades in the shade. Susceptible to soil - dense clay does not fit categorically, but on sandy loam and loam gives a good harvest.

To describe Petrovskaya 1, 2 definitions are briefly used: pleasant in appearance, tasty inside. It belongs to the oldest of the currently cultivated types of Russian turnip. Prefers light soils, sun, moisture-loving, rises 3 days after planting.

Gribovskaya local refers to a modification of an old variety with purple fruits. Adapted to the conditions of the Urals, gives a stable harvest. May yellow greenhead ripens quickly, brings not very much, but in sufficient quantity, flat, rounded turnips. Its main advantage remains the taste: bitterness is completely absent.

The Milanese White Redhead is a species of foreign origin; fruits are flattened, with a white top. Not suitable for long-term storage, not resistant to garden diseases.

For Siberia

Siberia is close to the Urals in terms of climatic conditions, so you can grow the same varieties there. Forget about early species right away: only specially adapted modifiers that are not susceptible to frost and low average annual temperature.

For Moscow Region

Turnip is not in vain considered an unpretentious plant, perfectly adapted for growing in the harsh realities of Mother Russia. Our ancestors knew about this, preferring a juicy and nutritious root crop to poorly acclimatized overseas potatoes.

Milan white red-headed, Petrovskaya-1, May yellow green-headed, Snegurochka, Geisha, Yubileinaya-85 grow well in the Moscow region. All these varieties are known to gardeners, they have long been cultivated in home gardens and summer cottages, bringing a stable harvest.

For other regions

For cultivation in other climatic zones of the Federation, species that have passed the test of cold and drought, poor soils and pests are selected. In this sense, preference is given to Russian varieties that are optimally adapted to local specifics.

When to sow a turnip

When determining the specific timing of sowing, they are guided by their own needs - when the vegetable is expected on the table in the form of a salad or a baked snack. To indulge in the sweet and juicy pulp of turnips in the summer, start sowing in early spring, as soon as the ground is exposed and the weather is warm.If you do not follow this simple rule, then hastily planted seeds will soon die, unable to withstand night frosts.

A completely different order for winter harvesting: for them, the seeds fall into the soil in July, at the beginning of the month. In cold regions, the growing season is chosen according to the laws of nature, so that 85-90 days pass from the moment of sowing to harvest.

When choosing between early and late (middle) varieties, it is better to stop at the latter, then the root crops will not have time to outgrow and lose their delicate taste, the sweetness of the pulp.

Important. Early-ripening varieties are usually poorly preserved - a kind of retribution for urgency, but later ones perfectly tolerate winter harvesting with subsequent storage.

Renewed interest in a crop that has not been mass-produced for a long time, its unique properties make it possible to recommend turnips as the main planting plant in the garden, along with potatoes, cabbage or tomatoes.

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