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How long does a spruce live: average duration and how to determine the age of a tree

How long does a spruce live: average duration and how to determine the age of a tree

Spruce is a genus of evergreen conifers, which belongs to the Pine family. This plant is considered one of the most beautiful trees in the world. It is a common attribute of everyone's favorite holiday - the New Year. At the same time, not every person knows exactly how long a spruce lives. This culture is considered long-lived, but the specific age depends on many conditions.

Spruce varieties

Today, many varieties of spruces are known, each of which has certain characteristics:

  1. Ayan - also called small-seeded.This culture, originally from the Far East, is distinguished by its conical crown and slenderness. An important feature of the tree is considered to be two-tone needles. Below it has a rich bluish color, and above it is dark green. Cones are characterized by a cylindrical shape and a light brown color. This culture is able to reach a height of 40-50 meters. It develops well in the shade, but does not withstand the waterlogging of the soil.
  2. Serbian - this variety is often called Balkan. It is characterized by horizontally arranged branches with a slightly curved middle part. The new growth hangs down like a fringe. This makes the appearance of the plant very unusual.
  3. Ordinary - such spruce is often called European. This variety is considered very common. It is distinguished by a cone-shaped crown and horizontal side shoots. The needles are square in shape and dark green in color. The tree is highly resistant to frost and can withstand shade very well. At the same time, the plant does not tolerate drought and stagnant moisture.It can reach a height of 50 meters. The first cones appear only at the age of 15-25.
  4. Canadian - also called gray or white. This culture is considered the most frost-resistant. It is completely undemanding to the composition of the soil. The plant has a slender cone-shaped crown. In young trees, the shoots are directed upward at an angle, but after a while they fall down. The needles are bluish in color and short in length.
  5. Blue - also called prickly. This culture perfectly withstands frosts and is characterized by resistance to dry weather and winter winds. This plant grows well in the city. It is large in size and has a cone-shaped crown. The cones are small and light brown in color. They ripen in the first half of autumn, but remain on the tree until spring. The color of the needles depends on the amount of wax coating. The more it is, the lighter the needles.
  6. Siberian - this spruce grows in northern Europe and Asia.This culture perfectly perceives the harsh climate. In this case, the quality of the soil does not really matter. The plant develops well in the shade and can reach a height of 30 meters. By the age of 12, the tree grows up to 4 meters. It has a cone-shaped crown and small dark green needles. Buds are compact in size and red-brown in color.
  7. Engelman - this spruce has slightly lowered branches. They are first decorated with cherry, and then light brown cones. The plant is characterized by bluish-green needles measuring 3 centimeters. The tree has a cone-shaped crown and reaches a height of 20 meters. The plant easily withstands frost and is considered undemanding to growing conditions.

Mean lifetime

Under natural conditions, the average lifespan of a plant is 200 years. This period may decrease with the development of pathologies. Needle diseases also lead to problems. In addition, extreme frosts can cause crop death.

The lifespan of spruce grown on the site depends on many factors. It is best to take root a tree that was grown in the same area. In this case, the life of the culture reaches 300 years.

The most tenacious Christmas trees

The longest life expectancy is characteristic of the Sitka spruce native to North America. Representatives of this species can reach 500-800 years. The Engelman spruce lives a little less. Its life span is 400-600 years. Approximately the same indicators are typical for the prickly variety.

The common spruce can also boast of a significant lifespan. For example, in Slovakia there is a copy that is 430 years old. Canadian spruce is able to live for 300-350 years.

Methods of determining age

It will be possible to determine the life span of spruce or pine by annual rings. The fact is that every year a new ring grows near the tree.You can also set the age without cutting down the tree. To do this, you need to count the number of tiers of branches. On Christmas trees, shoots grow in the form of rings or whorls. Every year there is a new tier. They do not form during the first 3-4 years.

Because calculating the age is not difficult. To do this, you need to determine the number of tiers of branches and add 3. This is relevant if the top was not cut down and the tree was not formed.

Is it possible to extend the life of a tree

Common spruce easily withstands dry weather. At the same time, undersized varieties and young plants may die due to a lack of moisture. Therefore, such plants are recommended to be watered on time, especially when planting in winter. To prevent waterlogging of the soil and rapid evaporation of moisture, mulching of the near-stem circle is carried out.

In order for spruce to grow better and live longer, it is worth applying complex fertilizers.When transplanting a tree, it is recommended to water it with stimulants. In order for the tree to develop normally, it is necessary to carry out periodic pruning. During the procedure, it is recommended to remove dry and diseased branches, which take strength from the tree and reduce its lifespan.

Spruce is a fairly common coniferous plant that is often used in landscape design. This tree is considered long-lived. However, to increase the life of a culture, it needs to provide quality care.

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