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Scotch pine: description and characteristics, structure and life form

Scotch pine: description and characteristics, structure and life form

Scotch pine is one of the most popular trees found in Russia. This monoecious evergreen crop grows in many Asian and European regions. Trees of this species are of interest to botanists and landscape designers. Such coniferous plants are often used to decorate parks, squares and summer cottages.

What kind of tree is this

Scotch pine is a common crop with certain characteristics.

External Description

This species of coniferous trees belongs to the genus Pinus. Scotch pine has a specific aroma and a number of other features:

  1. The height of the evergreen conifer is 10-30 meters.
  2. The crown has a diameter of up to 10 meters. It is raised high and has a conical shape. As the tree develops, the crown expands. In addition, it is characterized by cone-shaped branches.
  3. The trunk is slender and straight. Its diameter is 1.5 meters. The root has a fairly thick structure and is covered with grooves. Near the base, it is brown in color, and closer to the top of the trunk it becomes lighter.
  4. Initially, the shoots are characterized by a greenish color, but after a while they become shiny and buffy. Sometimes there is a small wax coating on the branches. Young branches turn grey-brown by year 2.
  5. The shoots are characterized by a whorled arrangement. On this basis, it is easy to determine the age of young trees.
  6. The plant is distinguished by thin, dense and stiff needles.It has a bluish-green color and is slightly curved. The length of the needles is determined by the place of growth and can reach 15 centimeters. The needles grow in bunches and remain on the trees for 2-3 years. Sometimes needles are present on pines and up to 5 years. In autumn, the color of the needles does not change.
  7. Male flowers are yellow or red. They resemble egg-shaped spikelets, which are located in heaps near the base of new shoots. The female cones are small and red or green in color. Pollination is carried out with the help of wind. Pine blossoms occur from late spring to early summer.
  8. Elongated ovoid fruits have a matte texture and a brown tint. They are most often solitary or form groups of 2-3 pieces.
  9. Scotch pine is characterized by elongated ovoid seeds of black or gray color. Their length reaches 4 centimeters. The seeds have transparent wings that are several times their size. Maturation occurs 2 years after pollination.
  • Fructification of a tree occurs in 10-15 years. In dense plantings, this can happen even after 30-40 years. A century old crop can produce up to 1,000 buds.

How long does a tree live

Scotch pine lives 100-600 years. It is characterized by the following life cycle:

  1. Seeds fall into the soil, are saturated with moisture and germinate.
  2. The rudiment of the root system is sent to the soil structure.
  3. Cotyledons rise above the ground.
  4. The stock of nutrients is actively used for future development.
  5. A new vertical shoot is formed with small needles, which are arranged in a spiral.
  6. At 2 years old, small transparent scales appear on the shoots. They have small needles in their sinuses.
  7. At the end of the cycle, the pine turns into an adult tree, and the pattern repeats again.


This culture is growing massively in Russia. It can be seen in many countries of the continents and on the islands. A large number of ordinary pines are found in Great Britain, in the ecological systems of Eastern Europe, on the coast of Spain. In Mongolia, there is a special subspecies, which is confirmed by botanists.

Scotch pine prefers fresh air. It often forms frequent plantations with deciduous trees - oaks and birches. This culture is not too demanding on the composition of the soil. It can even grow in swamps and sands.

How to plant correctly

In order to succeed in growing pine, it is important to understand what conditions it needs to provide. Planting work should be carried out between the end of April and the beginning of May. It is also permissible to plant a crop from late September to early October. When planting a plant in late autumn, it will not have time to quickly adapt to new conditions.In this case, there is a risk of death of the seedling. Large plants can also be planted in winter when they are dormant.

Scotch pine is considered to be a fairly photophilous crop. It thrives well in full sun. However, the tree can also be grown in partial shade. In a shady place, the tree will turn one-sided or deformed.

Culture is considered undemanding to the soil and can even grow in poor sandy soil. The plant develops well in light acidic soil. However, it should not be planted in open white sands.

To plant a plant, you need to prepare a recess. It should be twice the earthen room. You can fill the landing pit with a composition based on fertile soil, turf, clay and river sand. You can also add 40 grams of nitroammophoska to the composition.

First you need to pour the soil mixture into the recess, then carefully pull the seedling out of the container, trying not to destroy the soil clod, put the tree in the hole and fill the space with soil composition.It needs to be added gradually and immediately lightly tamped.

The root neck of the plant needs to be placed on the surface. Otherwise, there is a high probability of development of decay processes, which will lead to the death of the culture. After planting, the seedling needs to be watered.

Care instructions

Mature pines are highly drought tolerant. Even in the heat they can not be watered. Plants that have been planted recently, especially large ones, are considered an exception. Watering is also required for some compact varieties that have shallow roots. In this case, you need to pour water under the barrel.

Pine trees are considered not too demanding on the nutritional value of the soil. This means that fertilizers are not necessary for such plants. On the contrary, fresh manure or a mineral preparation with a high nitrogen content can harm the crop.This is especially true when using the substance in late summer.

Sometimes the soil lacks an important element or several at once. In this case, 1 time during the season, the pine needs to be fed. To do this, it is recommended to apply a complex preparation for conifers or use a product containing the desired element.

Pest control

Common pests that cause damage to pine trees include the following parasites:

  1. Scale insects - it is not difficult to identify them. In their structure, they resemble rounded formations or convex warts on a tree. To destroy these parasites, it is required to use such chemicals as Actellik, Aktara.
  2. Spider mites - infect trees in hot and dry weather. In this case, a thin white web appears on the plants. To cope with pests, it is required to carry out sprinkling of the crown.If regular water procedures do not give an effect, you can use special means - acaricides. You can also spray plantings with universal preparations that help to cope with many pests. These include, in particular, Aktellik and Fitoverm.
  3. Pine sawfly - in this case, the caterpillars cover the needles and actively absorb it. Manual collection or churning with water pressure will help to cope with parasites. Of the chemicals, it is permissible to use "Aliot", "Aktara", "Pinocide". In autumn, loosening of the near-stem circle is required. It is important to carry out carefully so as not to damage the root system.

Methods of reproduction

Scotch pine can be propagated in many ways. The easiest way to do this is with seeds. To start, the grain must be removed. To do this, it is recommended to use formed cones that are just beginning to open. It is worth collecting them in the fall - in September or October.

Cones need to be laid out in 1-2 layers and kept for several days in a dry and warm place. After a few days, the seeds will fall out on their own. It is worth sowing them immediately - before winter. This will provide natural stratification and help get friendly shoots. When planting pine seeds, they are deepened by 2-3 centimeters. It is recommended to do this in rows, adhering to an interval of 15 centimeters. You can plant seeds even thicker, but in this case, the planting will have to be thinned out.

After 1-2 years, pine pine seedlings can be moved to a permanent site or planted less often for subsequent growth. It is worth transplanting plants in spring or early autumn. At the same time, the use of the seed method of reproduction does not allow preserving the varietal characteristics of the crop. However, it is often used to obtain new decorative forms.

Another common pine propagation option is cuttings.It is important to bear in mind that this method is quite complex and laborious, therefore it is rarely resorted to. Cuttings are carried out in the spring - before the active development of new shoots. To do this, it is required to prepare cuttings 10-15 centimeters in size from vertically directed shoots. It is important that a piece of wood from the year before last remains at the bottom of the cut branch.

To root the plants, the lower parts of the cuttings should be soaked for 1-3 hours in water to remove the resin. After that, it is worth using root formation stimulants and planted in a greenhouse. Rooting is a rather lengthy process. At the same time, not all shoots take root. Planting is required in the fall of next year or even later.


Scotch pine is often used for decorative purposes. In addition, it has medicinal properties and is used in construction.

In landscape design

Pine trees help strengthen the soil, so they are often planted on slopes. The tree serves as an excellent decoration for the plains. It is often planted on the territory of medical institutions. At the same time, pine trees are rarely grown in urban areas.

In folk medicine and economy

Scots pine roots are used to make medicinal tinctures. Oil and plasters are often made from pine resin. The kidneys are considered an effective cough suppressant and have disinfectant properties. Pine needles are used to make oil, which copes with diseases of the kidneys and lungs.

Pine wood is often used to make fodder yeast and wine spirit. Also, this material is often used in construction.

Scotch pine is a very common crop that is often used to decorate yards. It also has medicinal properties and is often used in construction.

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