Beekeeping in the Urals: the history and characteristics of the region, the best breeds for the apiary

Beekeeping in the Urals: the history and characteristics of the region, the best breeds for the apiary

The Urals is a territory that is not well suited for breeding bees. This region is characterized by cold winters, wet springs and fairly short summers. Nevertheless, many people are engaged in beekeeping in the Urals. There it is possible to get honey, the diastase number of which is 30. This is considered an excellent indicator. At the same time, when breeding bees, it is important to take into account certain features.

History of Ural beekeeping

The history of the development of beekeeping in the Urals began in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. At that time, on-board farms and log apiaries were created in this area.They were organized in private estates and monasteries. Large farms included 600-700 decks. The main products that were made during that period included honey and wax.

Beekeeping received special development after the arrival of the Old Believers in the Urals. For them, this type of activity was one of the main ones, like fishing, hunting and farming.

In the nineteenth century, honey insects began to be mass-produced. Therefore, this period is often called the golden age of beekeeping. In the first half of the twentieth century, Russian beekeepers noticed local bees and began to study them.

In the thirties of the last century, an apiary was created from forest insects in the Verkhotursky district and called it "Record". It included 87 bee colonies. The farm brought about 80 kilograms of honey per year. Initially, insects were kept there in decks, and then in frame hives. For the winter, bees were sent to cellars and omshaniki.

Features of the region

Ural is characterized by quite severe weather conditions. This region is characterized by long winters and short rainy summers. Therefore, the bees are forced to stay without flying for 6-7 months. But now beekeeping is considered one of the most developed industries. At the same time, insects are mainly bred in the southern Urals.

For decades, the region has been a leader in the manufacture of products such as honey and wax. There are also farms that specialize in breeding thoroughbred bees.

The best breeds of bees

Central Russian bees are the most suitable for the Urals. They also grow karnika, a Carpathian breed. These insects can survive in harsh climates.

Central Russian bees are characterized by a dark gray color and large size. The weight of insects reaches 100-110 milligrams. They also have a short proboscis. In the apiary, it is desirable to grow bees of the same breed. This makes care easy and profitable.

In addition, representatives of the Central Russian breed are characterized by a number of distinctive features. These include the following:

  • aggressive nature;
  • tendency to swarm;
  • strong immunity;
  • high productivity;
  • minimum feed requirement in winter;
  • excellent adaptation to different types of hives.

Krainskaya breed is also very common in the Urals. The main advantage of its representatives is considered to be a peaceful character. Insects are medium in size and gray in color. Weight is 100-230 milligrams. Also, individuals are characterized by a long proboscis - its size reaches 7 millimeters.

Bees tolerate low temperatures very well and need a minimum amount of food in winter. The main disadvantage of this breed is genetic instability. If someone else's drone enters the family, the species will not receive the required qualities.

Carpathian bees are also actively grown in the Urals. They are gray in color and covered with a silvery down. The mass of one individual is 210-230 milligrams. Insects have a high degree of endurance and tolerate winters well. In this case, the bees are characterized by an aggressive character. The advantages of the breed are the lack of a tendency to swarm and a quiet change of queens.

Basic beekeeping methods

In the Urals, different methods of keeping honey plants are used. The most famous ways of keeping bees in the apiary include the following:

  • Kopteva and Kharchenko;
  • Warre;
  • Ermolaeva;
  • Kashkovsky;
  • two-case and two-uterine content.

When breeding insects in the Urals, it is recommended to take into account a number of features:

  1. It is best to give preference to the Central Russian breed of bees. These insects are most adapted to the harsh climate. They are resistant to low temperatures and disease.
  2. It is permissible to place an apiary only in ecologically clean areas of the Urals.
  3. Every year, bee colonies should be examined by a veterinarian. This will help avoid the spread of viral infections.

Beekeeping in the Urals is characterized by a number of features associated with the harsh climate. Unfavorable conditions are considered very risky for growing bees. But beekeepers are constantly mastering new technologies and prefer winter-hardy breeds. This helps create successful apiaries and achieve excellent honey harvest rates.

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